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"The socialist workers party 1951-1979":


  TH SCLST WRKRS PRTY 1951-1979

(mstr's thss)

ntrductn

vr th pst dcd th Sclst Wrkrs Prty (frmrly th ntrntnl Sclsts) hs grwn nt n rgnstn cpbl f smll but sgnfcnt ntrvntns n th clss struggl, nd wth rl pssblty f lyng th fundtns fr rvlutnry prty n Brtn. Mny cmrds wh hv jnd th SWP n ths prd, r wh hv wrkd lngsd us, qut rghtly wnt t kn w whr w hv sprung frm.

Th fllwng wrk wll sktch ut th hstry f th SWP nd ts prdcssr grups vr th pst thrty yrs. Th m s nt t nswr ll th slndrs thrwn t us by rvl grupngs; nr s t t prv tht w wr lwys rghtw crtnly wrn't.

Wthut rvlutnry thry thr s n rvlutnry prctc', sd Lnn n much-qutd phrs. But, s Lnn's whl lf shws, crrct thry s ncssry but nt nugh. f th thrysnt dptd nd fught fr by wrkrs, t s wrthlss bstrctn. Th hstry f th SWP s th hstry f th cntnud ttmpt t turn thry nt prctc.

Th fllwng brf hstry cnssts f thr rtcls. Th frst tw wr wrttn n rly 1975 nd publshd n ntrntnl Sclsm 76 nd 77 n tht sm yr. Th thrd, whch tks th stry up t th 1979 Try lctn vctry, hs bn wrttn n 1981. Rdrs my thrfr ntc crtn dscrpncs f styl nd prspctv btwn th frst tw rtcls nd th thrd.

n prtculr th clsng sctn f th scnd rtcl ws wrttn t tm whn t ws stll nt clr t ny f us hw lng nd dp th dwnturn n struggl tht fllwd th Lbur lctn vctry ws gng t b. hv thrfr dlt wth ths prd, nd th ntrnl dbt tht rs durng t, gn n grtr dtl n th thrd rtcl, t th prc f crtn vrlp. Th mst glrng mssn n th frst tw rtcls, hwvr, s ny trtmnt f th dvlpmnt f wmn's rgnstn n th ntrntnl Sclsts. hv trd t mk mnds fr ths n th thrd rtcl.

shrp ttck n th ccunt prsntd n th frst tw rtcls hs bn md by Mrtn Shw, frmr S mmbr, n Th Sclst Rgstr 1978 (Mrln Prss). Ths rtcl, nd my rply n Th Sclst Rgstr 1979, my b f ntrst t ny rdrs wh wnt t tk th rgumnt furthr thn s pssbl n ths shrt rtcl. Lkws, Dvd Wdgry's Th Lft n Brtn 1956-1968 (Pngun 1976) cntns much ntrstng mtrl rlvnt t th rlr prt f ths hstry.

shuld lk t thnk Nrh Crln nd Duncn Hlls fr dvc nd crtcsm durngth wrtng f ll thr f ths rtcls.

Prt 1: Frm thry nt prctc

1950-1960: TH FRST TN YRS

TH RGNS f th ntrntnl Sclsts r n th Trtskyst mvmnt. Th hstrcl chvmnt f Trtskysm ws t kp lv th Mrxst mthd nd ts nsstnc n th rvlutnry rl f th wrkng clss n th fc f th brbrus dstrtns f Stlnsm. Sm xcllnt rvlutnrs swllwd vry brbrty nd chng f ln frm Mscw bcus thr smd t b n ltrntv; thrs wr s scknd wth Stlnsm tht thy wrt ff th Russn Rvlutn ltgthr nd bcm scl dmcrts r vn drftd t th xtrm rght. Th chvmnt f Trtskysm n prsrvng Mrxst ds nd kpng tgthr smll grup f Mrxst cdrs fr utwghs ny thrtcl rrrs r ncdntl bsurdts.

But th 15 yrs tht fllwd th Scnd Wrld Wr ffrd vry hstl nvrnmnt fr rvlutnrs, n nvrnmnt n whch thrughut th wrld nt-Stlnst Mrxsts fund thmslvs cnfnd t tny grupsnth mrgns f th wrkng clss.

Thr wr tw mn rsns fr ths. Frstly th Cld Wr, bgnnng n 1947, ld t mssv pltcl nd dlgcl ssult n th Lft. Whl thr ws nthng cmprbl t McCrthysm n Brtn, thr ws systmtc wtch-hunt f Cmmunsts n th trd unn mvmnt, whl publshng huss turnd ut fldsfpsud-ntllctul rfuttnsfMrxsm.

Scndly, nd vn mr fundmntlly, th prlngd pst-wr bm md t xcptnlly hrd t rlt pltcl ds t th ctul xprnc f wrkrs. Th pltcl nd cnmc struggls smd t b ttlly sprt. n th tn yrs frm 1953 t 1962 thr wr nly 30 cnsttutnl stppgs n th ngnrng ndustry, nd n th fv yrs frm 1954 t 1958 thr wr nn t ll. s Th cnmst rthr sdly cmmntd: full mplymnt snc th wr hs nt ld t mr strks bcus th unns, nw mr hghly rgnsd thn vr, hv bn gttng thr wn wy wthut rcurs t thm.[1] n shrt, wrkrs wr bl t slv thr mmdt prblms wthut ny knd f gnrlstn. Th ffts sw th grwth f th shp stwrds mvmnt s w knw t tdy, but thy ls sw th Try Prty r-lctd wth ncrsd mjrts t thr succssv lctns.

Thngs hd chngd rdclly snc th rly yrs f Trtskysm, nd th mvmnt hd t rcnsdr th bss f ts pltcs. Vry brfly, thr wr tw mn ssus.[2] Frstly, Trtskys prspctv fr th mmdt pr-wr prd hd bn tht th cmng wr wuld nd n mssv crss wth grt rvlutnry pssblts. H ws wrng. n th shrt trm th mss Cmmunst Pncs hdd ff rvlutn; n th lngr trm Mrshll d nd th dvlpmnt f th rms cnmy pnd up nw prd f cptlst xpnsn. Ths mnt nd t r-xmn rdclly thrtcl vws f mdm cptlsm.

Th scnd qustn tht cnfrntd th mvmnt ws n tht hd lrdy bn much dscussd th s-clld Russn qustn. Up t hs dth Trtsky hd lwys rgud tht Russ, dspt Stlns crms, rmnd wrkrs stt, thugh dgnrtd n; h rjctd th vw tht Russ hd rvrtd t cptlsm, r tht nw frm f clss scty hd grwn up thr. By th lt frts, hwvr, nw lmnt ntrd th dbt. Fllwng th grt crv-up f th wrld t th nd f th Scnd Wrld Wr, Russ hd tkn vr numbr f cuntrs n strn urp nd stblshd rgms thr whch wr bcmng mr r lss dntcl wth th st-up n Russ. Th qustn tht rs ws wr ths t wrkrs Stts? f nt, hw cm thy smd t functn n xctly th sm wy s Russ? f thy wr, thn ddnt tht mn yu culd hv wrkrs stt wthut wrkrs rvlutn nd wthut n ndpndnt, rvlutnry prty?

t ws n ths stutn tht grupng wthn th Brtsh Trtskyst mvmnt dvlpd th thry tht Russ, nd th st urpn stts, wr stt cptlst.[3] Th mn thrtcl lbrtn ws th wrk f Tny Clff. Th thrtcl cnfusn n th Trtskyst mvmnt ws ccmpnd by dgnrtn n th rgnstn nd th stndrd f ntrnl dbt. s rsult th cmrds wh hld th "stt cptlst pstn wr thr xplld r lft, nd lt n 1950 bgn t publsh duplctd ppr Sclst Rvw. Th nw grup, tkng ts nm frm th ppr, hld ts fundng cnfrnc t Whtsuntd 1951.

T n utsdr th dbt but th clss ntur f Russ ftn sms rd nd lmst thlgcl. But th ssu ws vry rl n. Th stt cptlst thry strssd tht wht ws cntrl t th clss ntur f scty ws nt frml wnrshp, but cntrl. Th bsnc f wrkrs cntrl n Russ ws nt dfct n n thrws prgrssv systm, t ws clr ndctn (ht th systm ws n n sns wrkrs stt. Th cntrl pstn tht wrkrs cntrl lwys hd n Ss pltcl nlyss nd ndustrl strtgy drvs drctly frm th thry f stt cptlsm.

t s smtms llgd tht th crtn f th Sclst Rvw grup rprsntd sm srt f cncssn t Cld Wr prssur t th tm f th Krn Wr. n fct, th Krn Wr ws nt th ssu t th hrt f th splt. Rthr t ws th shmlssly pprtunst supprt fr Tts Yugslv by th rst f th Trtskyst mvmnt[4] frm 1948 nwrds tht hghlghtd th prncpld dffrncs. Mrvr, nyn wh n 1950 wntd t cptult t pr-mrcn prssurs hd plnty f thr nd mr cmfrtbl pnngs vlbl; n culd bcm rght-wng wtch-huntr n th Lbur Prty r trd unn mvmnt, r jn th crcls f Wshngtn-fnncd nt-Cmmunst ntllctuls. nd fr ths wh rsstd th prssur t gv n t Wstrn mprlsm, thr ws stll th dngr f submttng t Stlnst prssur f tkng mr r lss uncrtcl tttud t Yugslv, Nrth Kr r thr Stlnst stts. t ws prcsly ths trp tht th rst f th Trtskyst mvmnt ws fllng nt. By s dng t ws bndnng th vry ssnc f Trtskysm, nmly, ndpndnc f bth Wstrn mprlsm nd Stlnsm.

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Frm th bgnnng th Sclst Rvw grup md n cncssns t th Wstrn llnc nd th Suth Krn dcttrshp t supprtd. Th Lbur mvmnt must pps th llnc wth Trumn, dnur, Syngmn Rh nd th thr rprsnttvs f Wstrn Dmcrcy; thy must fght fr n llnc wth th mllns f tlrs f urp, s, frc nd th rst f th wrld.[5] t dnuncd th full-scl clnl wrs n Vtnm nd Mly.[6]

Th lgc f th pstn tht th strn urpn stts wr wrkrs stts ws, f curs, tht rvlutnry prts wr nt ncssry fr th stblshmnt f wrkrs stts. Th Sclst Rvw grup, n th thr hnd, strssd tht nly th wrkng clss culd stblsh sclsm; nd tht t ws ncssry t buld ndpndnt wrkrs prts. s rslutn crrd t n rly ntnl mtng f th grup[7] put t, ur grupng, bsd n th cncptn f Russ s Stt-cptlst cuntry, s th nuclus f tht nw Mrxst prty, nd cn b bult frmly NLY n th ccptnc f prty dscpln n th trdtn f Blshvsm undr Lnns ldrshp.

Th thr ssntl cmpnnt f Ss bsc thry ws ls dvlpd t ths tm. Ths ws th d f th prmnnt rms cnmy,[8] whch sught t xpln hw th prlngd pst-wr bm ws pssbl. Th rgumnt tht t ws rms xpndtur tht ws pstpnng cptlst crss ws vtl fr n rgumnt n tw frnts. n th n hnd th Cmmunst Prty nd mst sctns f th Trtskyst mvmnt rfusd t rcgns ny sgnfcnt chng n th cptlst systm; slump ws prdctd vry tm th unmplymnt fgurs, wnt up fw hundrd. n th thr hnd thrsts f th Lbur Prty rght such s nthny Crslnd rgud tht th systm hd bn fundmntlly trnsfrmd nd tht xpnsn nd rfrms culd cntnu ndfntly.

gnst ths th rms cnmy thry rgud tht th pst-wr bm ws prlngd nd dp-rtd phnmnn, nd tht rvlutnrs must pln thr strtgy ccrdngly. But gnst th rfrmsts t rgud tht cptlst stblty ws bught nly t th prc f crtng wpns tht culd dstry humnty tslf; mrvr, tht th crss culd nt b put ff ndfntly:

Th wr cnmy my thus lss nd lss srv s cur fr vr-prductn, stblsr f cptlst prsprty. Whn th wr cnmy bcms xpndbl, th knll f th cptlst bm wll surly tll. [9]

Tgthr wth stt cptlsm th rms cnmy thry quppd th mgr frcs f th Sclst Rvw grup t fc rlty.

Splts r nt t b undrtkn lghtly n th rvlutnry mvmnt. Unty f ctn cmbnd wth full nd frtrnl dbt s ftn prfrbl slutn. But whn th whl qustn f pltcl drctn nd strtgy s t stk, splt bcms nvtbl. n ths trms th splt f 1950 ws justfd.

Mrxsts r nt ftlsts, nd n ny hstrcl prd thr s smthng fr rvlutnry t d. But thr r hstrcl stutns whr bjctv fctrs prvnt rvlutnry ds frm rchng mss udnc. n such stutn smll grups cn ply vtl rl smply n kpng th rvlutnry flm lght. Mrx n lttr t Blt wrt: Scts r justfd (hstrclly) s lng s th wrkng clss s nt yt rp fr n ndpndnt hstrcl mvmnt.[10]

But t ccpt th ncssty fr sct s nt t justfy sctrnsm. crrct nlyss, n ts wn, gurnts nthng. numbr f thr grupngs wth Stt cptlst nlyss f Russ mrgd rund ths tm n vrus prts f th wrld. Mst f thm cthr just dspprd, r gt lst n th luntc frng f sctrn pltcs.

Such dngrs wr vry rl ns fr th nwly frmd Sclst Rvw grup. t th frst rcrdd mtng (Sptmbr 1950) thr wr just 33 mmbrs rprsntd. Grups xstd n Lndn, Thms Vlly, Crw, Brmnghm, Shffld nd Mnchstr. 19 f th 33 wr n th Lbur Lgu f Yuth. lthugh t ws clmd ths 33 rprsntd qurtr f th ttl frcs f Brtsh Trtskysm, t ws nnthlss mnut frc. 350 cps f th frst ssu f th ppr wr prducd; sls wr pprntly suffcntly ncurgng fr th fgur t b rsd fr th scnd ssu... t 375!

Fr ny smll grup thr r tw ppst ptflls. n s t s tslf s th cntr f th unvrs, nd thus bcm bsssd wth dfndng tslf gnst ts qully nsgnfcnt rvls. Th thr s t surrndr t ts wn mptnc, nd thrfr t prjct th jb f mkng th rvlutn n t smn ls th clnl rvlutn, th lft trd unn ldrs, r whtvr. xmpls f bth rrrs bund.

Th Sclst Rvw grup ws, thrughut th ffts, purly prpgnd grup, t ws nt bl t mk ny mnngful ntrvntn n th clss struggl. But prpgnd hs t hv n udnc; nd unlss rvlutnry grup rmns n ntmt cntct wth ts udnc, th dngrs f fllng nt cmplt fntsy wrld r grt ndd. Thrughut th ffts th Sclst Rvw grup, dspt ts lmtd numbrs, lwys strv t rlt t th ctul prblms f th wrkng clss. Mnuts f th dscussn f th ppr Sclst Rvw dtng frm 1951[11] shw cncrn t mk th ppr rlt. Th mn pnts wr tht thr ws nt nugh n Brtn, nd dtrls shuld b n Brtsh mttrs; t ws gnrlly flt t b stll t much cmpsd f nt-Stlnst rtcls.

n prctc ths mnt wrk n th Lbur Prty. ll mmbrs wr xpctd t b ctv n th Lbur Prty; bfr th 1951 Gnrl lctn drctv ws ssud sttng: t s mst ncssry tht ur cmrds bcm knwn t th wrkng clss n thr lcl rs s th mst nrgtc nd nt-Try Lbur Prty wrkrs.

But Lbur Prty wrk ws nt undrtkn n th bss f mpndng crss; thr ws n xpcttn f mmnnt splt, n hp f cpturng th ldrshp f sctn f th Prty. n prd f stblty, whn th trdtnl Lbur Lft ws dclnng n strngth nd pwr t mbls, such prspctv culd hv ld t dngrus pprtunsm (s ws th cs wth Sclst utlk publshd by th frrunnrs f th Sclst Lbur Lgu (nw th Wrkrs Rvlutnry Prty) whch pnd ts clumns t Prty burucrts lk Bss Brddck). Th Lbur Prty ws sn s n rn whch md t pssbl t kp cntct wth th wrkng clss mvmnt, nd s surc f rcruts. Th lttr ws, f curs, prtculrly pplcbl n th cs f th yuth mvmnt. rslutn crrd n Dcmbr 1950 sttd: Tht w cncntrt n th nxt prd n rcrutng, nd drct ur prmry ffrts twrds th Lgu f Yuth, ccptng ll lmnts wh wll ccpt ur thrtcl pstn, vn thugh thr thrtcl lvl s lw.

Trd unn ntrvntn ws ncssrly vry lmtd fr smll grup wth fw ndustrl wrkrs. But prrty ws lwys gvn t th fw pprtunts tht dd xst. Mnuts f th frst fw mnths f th grups xstnc rcrd dscussn f th cmng USDW Cnfrnc, t whch cmrd ws t b dlgt, nd th rcmmndtn tht cmrd shuld stnd fr th NC f NLG. Thr ws rgulr wrk n th Brmnghm Trds Cuncl.

nd n 1959 Gff Crlssn, fundr mmbr f th grup nd cnvnr t th NV fctry n Nrth Wst Lndn, rn fr th Prsdncy f th U. Th numbr f U mmbrs n th grup culd hv bn cuntd n th fngrs f n hnd, nd thr ws n ntrvntn thr thn th wrk f ndvduls. But cnddts hd th rght t crcult n lctn ddrss, nd Crlssn usd ths t put frwrd n ltrntv plcy fr th unn. ftr crtcsng th rght-wng ldrshp f th unn fr flng t gv ld vr wgs r rdundncs, h wnt n:

n th lctns vr th pst yrs, mmbrs brn bd t chs btwn cnddts bckd by th rght wng Lbur r th Cmmunst Prty. Th chc hs nt bn sy. lthugh mst mmbrs w llgnc t th Lbur Prty, thy cnnt ccpt th plcs pursud by th rght wng f th Trd Unns nd Lbur Prty whn ths hv ncludd wg-frzng, clss-cllbrtn nd "sll-uts". ltrntvly, lthugh thy rspct th mltnt ctvts f th ndvdul Cmmunst Prty mmbr n th dly struggls n th shp flr, thy cnnt gnr th xtrnl lylts f th Cmmunst Prty t Russ; nr frgt th nt-wrkng-clss msurs dptd by tht cuntry n st Brln, Pznn, Hungry, tc.

Tht thr ws sm rspns t ths pstn ws shwn by th vtng; Crlssn, wthut ny mchn t hs dspsl, gt 5615 vts ut f ttl f 91,400, gnst 57,127 fr rght-wngr Cn-n nd 19,799 fr Cmmunst Prty mmbr Brch.

t ws nt th cncrt chvmnts f ny f th ctvts f th ffts tht mttrd; thy wr, f curs, qut nglgbl. Wht dd mttr ws n rnttn t th wrkng clss, n rnttn tht ws t mk ntrvntn pssbl whn thngs httd up n th sxts.

1960-64: NW PNNGS

N 1960 th Sclst Rvw grup ws nt sgnfcntly bggr thn t hd bn tn yrs rlr. ts smll sz hd prvntd t bnftng frm th vnts f 1956th rdclstn cusd by th Try nvsn f gypt nd th splt n th Cmmunst Prty fllwng th Hungrn Rvlutn. But nw nw pssblts bcknd.

Th nuclr rms rc hd brught rltv stblty t th Wstrn cnms. But, rnclly, t ws th nuclr rms rc whch sprkd ff wht ws t b th bggst mss mvmnt n th lft snc th thrts. Th Cmpgn fr Nuclr Dsrmmnt, cllng fr uncndtnl unltrl bndnmnt f nuclr wpns by Brtn, ws st up by hndful f ntllctuls nd pcfsts n 1958. Th mvmnt grw rpdly ut f th cntrl f ts lunchrs, nd t str 1960 nd 1961 but hundrd thusnd ppl tk prt n th mrchs frm ldrmstn mst f thm yung nd sgnfcnt prprtn wrkng clss. t th Scrbrugh Lbur Prty Cnfrnc n 1960 rslutn fr unltrl dsrmmnt ws crrd gnst th rsstnc f th Prry ldr, Gtskll, nd th rght-wng pltfrm.

Mst mprtnt f ll, th dmnstrtns nd lcl CND grups prvdd n nttn nt pltcs fr whl nw gnrtn f yung ppl. Mst f thm hd lttl xprnc f th Lbur Prty, thugh sm f thm ltr mvd nt ts yuth mvmnt. Th Cmmunst Prty, t, ws bsnt n th rly yrs f th Cmpgn, rgung tht t ws dvsv.[12]

f curs t culdnt lst lng. Th 1961 Lbur Prty Cnfrnc sw th mchn gt bck n tp, nd wth th pprch f Gnrl lctn th Lbur Lft bgn t rtrt n th nm f unty. By 1963 th Cmpgn ws dfntly n th dcln.

Fr th Sclst Rvw grup ths nw upsurg ffrd th chnc t brk ut f th rutn f Lbur Prty nd trd unn wrk. Wthut bndnng ts fundmntl rnttn n th wrkng clss. Sclst Rvw (nw prntd frtnghtly) trd t fnd n udnc mng ths nwly rdclsd by th CND.

Sclst Rvws rjctn f cptlsm st nd Wst summd up n th slgn Nthr Wshngtn nr Mscw but ntrntnl Sclsm clrly mnt tht t cndmnd qully Brtsh, mrcn nd Russn H-bmbs. Ths dstngushd t frm th Cmmunst Prty, nd frm crtn rthdx Trtskyst grupngs - ntbly th SLL whch rgud tht th Svt pssssn f H-bmbs (nd by mplctn thr pssbl us gnst Wstrn wrkrs) ws smhw dffrnt Th Sclst Rvw pstn ws crtnly clsr t th mpulsv rctns f th mjrty f CND supprtrs, vn f mst f thm dd nt hv vry clr nlyss t bck t up. s rsult f ts pltcs nd ctvty, th Sclst Rvw grup ws bl, n th rly sxts, t rcrut nw st f cdrs t supplmnt th smll numbr wh hd survvd th prssurs f th ffts.

But whl Sclst Rvw supprtrs wr ctv n ll th wrk f CND, thy wr ls cncrnd t drct th cmpgn twrds th wrkng clss, th nly frc tht culd ctully wn th fght gnst wr. Th nwly lunchd jurnl ntrntnl Sclsm (1960) wlcmd th unltrlst vctry t Scrbrugh, but pntd ut tht th Prty mchn culd sly rvrs th dcsn unlss t ws cncrtly rltd t th ndustrl struggl:

Th Lft s n n pstn t fc Gtsklls mchn wth n f ts wn. ur rgnstnl rsurcs rflct ur wknss n plcy mgnfd by th grtr strss w plc n cnvctns nd n th spntnus rcrutmnt f ppl t mplmnt thm. ur strngst wpn wuld b t lnk th ssu f dfnc wth th stuff f rdnry lf n whch wrkrs hv shwn unshkbl cnvctns t th pnt f hrsm.

Frm ths ngl, t s sgnfcnt tht ths sctrs f wrkrs tht hv bn nggd n ndustrl struggl lttrly rlwy mn, ngnrs, trnsprt wrkrs r n gnrl th mst utspknly unltrlst. t s vn mr sgnfcnt tht th Cntrl Lndn busmn, hghly crtcl s thy rfCusns ldrshp n ndustrl mttrs, r sldly bhnd hm n th Bmb ssu. t s bvus tht prgrss fr th Lft ls n brkng dwn th hgh stks f nuclr dplmcyntth smll chps f clss struggl. [13]

t s gnst th bckgrund f th grwth f th CND tht th dcsn by th Lbur Prty, n Fbrury 1960, t lunch nw ntnl yuth mvmnt, th Yung Sclsts, must b sn. Th. Lbur ldrs wr dply dstrssd by dcd ut f ffc, cntnung nblty t ttrct yung vtrs, nd th sght f thusnds f nrgtc yung ptntl cnvssrs wstng thr tm n nt-Bmb mrchs. Thy hd n ffctn fr yuth mvmnts, whch wr trdtnlly nclnd t b wll t th lft f th Prty. Th Lgu f Yuth hd bn dsbndd n 1955, nd snc thn th lcl yuth sctns hd dtrrtd, s tht by th lt ffts thr wr prbbly nly rund fur thusnd mmbrs, mnly mddl clss.

S th burucrts grttd thr tth nd lunchd th Yung Sclsts nd mrvr gv t rltvly lbrl cnsttutn. n th shrt trm t pd ff by th sprng f 1961 Trnsprt Hus ws clmng 726 YS brnchs, nd th frst ntnl cnfrnc hd vr thr hundrd dlgts. Thr ws lrg nw pl f frsh fsh, nd vry Trtskyst grupng n xstnc ws gttng ts fshng rd rdy.

Th Sclst Rvw grups ntrvntn ws thrugh ppr clld Yung Gurd. Ths ws nt th sl prprty f Sclst Rvw; t cm nt xstnc s brd frnt f lft tndncs wthn th Yung Sclsts. t frst pprd n Sptmbr 1961, fllwng th fusn f tw pprs, Rbl nd Rlly, nd ws ls supprtd by grup f yung sclsts wh hd bn nvlvd n th pprntcs strk f 1960, mnly frm Glsgw, nd by numbr f Trbunts nd CND supprtrs. But Sclst Rvw prvdd th dtr, nd ncrsngly cm t dmnt th pltcl ln. Th ppr hd dmcrtc cnsttutn, nd ts clumns rflctd wd rng f vws n pltcl nd culturl mttrs. Th lttrs clumn dbtd such qustns s whthr Cub ws sclst nd wht shuld b sclsts tttud t rlgn.

t ws prt f th succss f Yung Gurd tht t ws bl t brk ut f th trdtnl mlu f rvlutnry pltcs. Th culturl tmsphr rund Yung Gurd chrctrsd mnly by br drnkng nd flk sngng my nt hv mt th pprvl f rvlutnry pursts r purtns, but t nbld nw gnrtn f yung wrkrs t mv twrds th trdtns f Mrxst pltcs.

But Yung Gurd dd nt mrly dpt t mlu; t ls fught t rlt ths mlu t th clss struggl. Th yung ppl wh wr turnng t sclsm n ths prd wr mnly wrkrs-mnul r wht-cllr but thy hd n trdtns f trd unn rgnstn. Th typcl pltcl vlutn f yung cmrd t ths tm ws s fllws: frst gt nvlvd n CND dmnstrtns, thn jn th Yung Sclsts, nd, vYung Gurd cm nt S. t ws prbbly nly ftr ths tht th cmrd ws prsudd f th mprtnc f gng t hs unn brnch mtng. Rcruts wr bng md n th bss f ds rthr thn ctvty ndd, S dd nt hv ctvty f ts wn, s dstnct frm prtcptngn th ctvts f th Yung Sclsts nd CND. nd th prcss ws nt, n strct trms, rdclstn nsd th Lbur Prty. Ths wh cm t S t ths tm wr nt lngstndng Lbur Prty mmbrs, but yung ppl wh hd cm n rund th CND mblstn.

Dspt th bsnc f ny rl lnks wth th trd unn mvmnt, Yung Gurd trd t rlt th pltcl nd ndustrl struggls. Thrughut ts xstnc t gv cntrl mprtnc t th pprntcs mvmnt, nd th vrus struggls tht dvlpd btwn 1960 nd 1965 fr bttr py, shrtr hurs, lngr hldys, dy-rls nd ngttng rghts fr pprntcs. Dspt th ntrnsc dffcults f rgnsng pprntcs, nd th cnfusn cusd by vrus pltcl tndncs tryng t tk vr th mvmnt, th pprntcs struggls prvdd vtl brdg btwn th pltcl nd cnmc fghts, nd hlpd t sv Yung Gurd frm snkng nt mrss f sctrnsm.

Fr, frm th vry utst, th Yung Sclsts ws cckpt f mbttrd fctnl dsput. Th mn rspnsblty fr ths ly n th Lbur Prty burucrts n Trnsprt Hus, wh, hyprsnstv but thr lctrl mg, clmpd dwn n lft-wngrs n th Yung Sclsts wth prscrptns, xpulsns nd clsurs f brnchs.

But sm shr f th blm ls ls n Yung Gurds mn pltcl rvl n th Yung Sclsts, Kp Lft. Kp Lft hd th sm pltcs s th Sclst Lbur Lgu (lrdy prscrbd by th Lbur Prry) nd ws vntully tslf prscrbd. Th pltcs f Kp Lft nd th SLL dffrd frm ths f S[14] n numbr f spcfc pnts. Ths ncludd th Russn qustn; th SLLs blf tht Russ ws dgnrt wrkrs stt ld t t rgu tht Russn H-Bmbs nd vn Russn nuclr tsts wr smhw gn fr th wrkng clss. Thr prspctv ld thm t s vry flckr f th cnmy s n ndctn f mpndng slump nd vry utburst f rclsm s n mn f mmnnt fscsm.

But vn mr mprtnt thn prtculr pstns ws th SLLs styl f pltcs. cncrn but m nd fr ldrshp ws trnsfrmd nt blf tht th fght fr ldrshp cnsstd f prclmng th crrctnss f ns wn pstns. Ths ld t bst t svr sctrnsm mkng ny prctcl cprtn mpssbl, t wrst t frm f mglmn whch put th SLL t th cntr f th pltcl unvrs:

Frm Trnsprt Hus nd th Cmmunst Prty hdqurtrs t Kng Strt, dwn t th much smllr grups f Mr Clff nd hs s-clld Sclst Rvw stt cptlsts nd th tny Pblt frgmnts, thr s unnmus grmnt tht th Sclst Lbur Lgu shuld b dstryd. [15]

S cmrds gnrlly rspndd wth hlthy, f rbld, cyncsm. But ny hp f untd struggl gnst th rght wng ws dstryd. By 1964 th fctnlsm hd grwn s psnus tht t thrtnd th vry xstnc f th Yung Sclsts. Kp Lft nd Yung Gurd supprtrs culd nt mt wthut ccustns f pltcl scbbng, cllbrtn wth th rght wng, nd s n. Whrs cupl f yrs rlr th Yung Sclsts hd bn plc whr yung ppl culd rcv frst ntrductn t rvlutnry pltcs, Yung Sclsts mtng ws nw such s t frghtn wy fr lf ny unnttd yuth wh mght hppn t stry n by ccdnt.

n th nd th Yung Sclsts tr tslf t pcs much mr ffctvly thn th rght wng culd hv dn. Kp Lft wlkd ut just bfr th 1964 lctn, nd th rptd rumurs tht th Yung Sclsts wuld b dsslvd nvr mtrlsd; t smply fdd nd bcm rump.

Fr S th xprnc n th Yung Sclsts hd prducd qulttv dvnc. Th grup hd grwn numrclly nd by 1964 t hd tppd th tw hundrd mrk. vn mr mprtnt, th nw rcruts hd plyd ldng rl n wht ws, lbt brfly, mss mvmnt. Thy hd rpdly cqurd dgr f pltcl sphstctn, n sm wys n xcssv n.

Th cmrds ls hd t fght gnst numbr f thr currnts f thught whch, n gnrl, stmmd frm sns f dftsm t th wknss f th lft. Fr xmpl, S nggd n plmc wth th grup whch publshd Th Wk (frrunnr f th MG) but whthr Mrxsts shuld gv unqulfd ppstn t ncms plcy. Th Wk rgud tht th lft must nt slt tslf frm ths wrkrs wh hd llusns n th Lbur Gvrnmnt nd clld Ss uncmprmsng hstlty t ll ncms plcs sctrn:

Th lft must fnd wy f ppsng th ncms plcy wth slgns whch wll ppr rsnbl t ths sctns f wrkrs. Wth du humlty w wuld gn put frwrd ur prtculr slgn:

N ngttns n n ncms plcy untl th bks r pn t th wrkrs[16] t clmd.

nthr mnfsttn f ths dftsm ws th "Thrd-Wrldsm whch flurshd n mny prts f th lft. Th drmtc struggls n lgr, Cub, tc bcm substtut fr th mr dwn-t-rth tsks fcd t hm. NwLft Rvw publshd n rtcl n Th Thrd Wrld by n Kth Buchnn. ftr prsng th ryl sclsm f Cmbd, Buchnn wrtng frm th vntg pnt f prfssrshp n Nw Zlnd dclrd:

Hvng tstd th dlghts f fflunc, urpn wrkrs hv tndd t bcm "mburgs" nd vr mr urp-cntrc nd prchl n thr tttuds. Fnn my cry tht th wll-bng nd prgrss f urp hv bn bult wth th swt nd crpss f blck mn nd yllw mn, ndn, nd rbbut th cry s unhrd md th dstrctns f nw nd dlghtful pulnc. [17]

thrs, wh ttchd sm mprtnc t Mrxst rthdxy, dd nt fl bl t bndn th wrkng clss s lghtly. nstd thy slvd th prblm by chngng th mnngs f wrds s tht stt stblshd by psnt-bsd ntnl lbrtn struggl bcm wrkrs stt:

Th lgrn rvlutn hs n rlty ntrd nt ts dcsv phs. Whlst rvlutnry msurs ncrs n th drctn f trnsfrmtn f th cuntry nt stt hvng th cnmc nd scl structur f wrkrs stt, th thrts gnst th ntrnl nd xtrnl rvlutnrs r bcmng clrr. [18]

S ws crtnlynt fr frmtctclrrrs n ths prd; but th mphss nd nlyss drvd frm ts bsc thry nbld t t scp th mr bvus ptflls.

t ws durng ths tm tht th pltcl nd rgnstnl styl whch ws t chrctrs S bgn t dvlp. Ths hd tw mn fturs. Th frst ws sns f prprtn, f th rltv nsgnfcnc f S s n rgnstn. Whn S hd tw hundrd mmbrs, nd th SLL, t bst, twc tht mny, th qustn t stk ws nt th crss f ldrshp, th struggl fr cntrl btwn grups f whch 98 pr cnt f wrkrs hd nvr hrd. t ws th much mr mdst tsk f ductng ths wh wr rund t lstn nd f strkng rts n th clss n smll wy whr ths ws pssbl.

S mmbrs n ths prd wr wll wr f thr wn nsgnfcnc. (Th prsnt wrtr rmmbrs pstng th ntr ut-f-Lndn crcultn f Lbur Wrkr n pllr-bx n Fnsbury Prk). ndd, n f th thngs tht dstngushd S frm mst thr rvlutnry grupngs t th tm ws n blty t lk t tslf wth sns f humur, t tms slf-dprctng n.

Th scnd ftur ws n wrnss tht th rvlutnry rgnstn hd t b bult nsd th wrkng clss nd nt n sltn frm t. Th qustn ws n f nvlvng nd dvlpng cmrds, nt f buldng wlls t prsrv th purty f th mbrync prty. Hnc th flxbl tttud t mmbrshp tkn by th S grup. Nw cmrds wr nvlvd n ctvty, prtcptd n mtngs nd smwht unsystmtclly wr ntrducd t th grups pltcl pstns. Ths ws mprtnt n tht th cmrds, whl bng wr tht thy wr n tny mnrty, flt thmslvs prt f brdr mvmnt CND r Lbur Prty lft nd thus nvr hd th sns f sltn frm rlty s sly gnrtd by sctrn pltcs.

But ths pstv chrctrstcs hd thr ngtv spct. t ws frm ths yrs tht S mmbrs nhrtd smwht lbrtrn tttud t rgnstn, tndncy t dstrust dscpln r ny knd f frmlsd r cntrlsd structur. s th stutn chngd vr th fllwng yrs n f th bstcls S hd t vrcm ws th lbrtrnsm f ts wn trdtns.

lthugh th yuth mvmnt ws t th cntr f th rn durng ths prd, S nvr drppd ts cncrn wth th ndustrl struggl. Mr wrkrs wr bng rcrutd t S, thugh thy wr bng rcrutd s ndvduls n th bss f gnrl pltcs rthr thn n th bss f n ndustrl strtgy, nd mst f thm wr t yung t hv ny dcsv nflunc t thr plc f wrk. But fr th futur thy prvdd th bss fr nw ndustrl cdr.

Th ndustrl rnttn ws ls ncurgd by th lunchng, n 1961, f nw ppr, ndustrl Wrkr, sn t b rnmd Lbur Wrkr, ntndd t b mr gttnl, mr grd t ngng ndustrl struggls, thn Sclst Rvw hd bn. t ws unvn n qulty, nd smtms smd t cnsst f nthng mr thn scrs f strk rprts. But t bst t ws lvly nd cntnd sgnfcnt numbr f rtcls by ndustrl mltnts (fr xmpl, th Mrch 1964 ssu cntnd sgnd rtcls by mmbrs f th TGWU (tw), TU nd UPW). ts pltcs uncndtnl supprt fr unffcl strks nd ttl ppstn t ncms plcy vn undr Lbur gvrnmnt dstngushd t frm mst thr publctns n th lft.

By 1964 Lbur Wrkr hd chvd crcultn f vr 2000, nd n prl 1964 th frst Lbur Wrkr cnfrnc ws hld n Lndn, ttrctng but 150 ppl.[19] Ths put th mn strss n th cmng Lbur gvrnmnt nd th thrt f ncms plcy. Stps wr bng tkn t prpr fr th struggls t cm.

1964-67: TH LBUR GVRNMNT

TH LCTN f Lbur Gvrnmnt n 1964 ws grtd wth cnsdrbl nthussm by rdnry mmbrs f th lbur mvmnt, wh hd ndurd 13 yrs f Try rul, nd nw hpd, nt fr th sclst mllnnum, but t lst fr sm rdcl rfrms.

Prdxclly, Lburs rrvl n pwr ws ls wlcmd by lrg sctns f th rulng clss, bsclly bcus thy hpd tht Lbur mght b bl t mps succssful ncms plcy nd kp th trd unns n thr plc. Clrly thr ws cntrdctn hr; nd thugh Wlsn ws bl t btn mssv vctry n th 1966 lctn, th cntrdctns culd nt b prmnntly supprssd.

ncms plcy tslf hd bn n th crds fr qut lng tm, but vn mny pr-Lbur trd unnsts culd nt stmch th frms t tk. Mny mr f Wlsns supprtrs wr lntd by hs vcus rd-btng ttcks n th strkng smn n 1966, by th tghtnng up f mmgrtn cntrls, nd by th fwnng supprt fr US plcy n Vtnm.

Snc lng bfr Lbur cm t pwr, S hd tkn frm pstn f uncndtnl ppstn t ll ncms plcy undr cptlsm. Ths pstn lft t lmst cmpltly sltd frm th rst f th lft. Fr xmpl, t Cnfrnc rgnsd by th nsttut fr Wrkrs Cntrl n prl 1964, th tw S mmbrs prsnt wr th nly ppl t tk pstn f ll-ut ppstn t ncms plcy.

Th mprtnc f ncms plcy ws tht t psd drct thrt t th frms f rgnstn tht Brtsh wrkrs hd dvlpd durng th ffts. Th shft frm ntnl t lclsd brgnng, wth th cnsqunt grwth n mprtnc f shp-flr rgnstn s gnst th trd unn burucrcs, hd ld t rs n slf-cnfdnc mng wrkrs, but ls t frgmnttn nd rltv lck f ntrst n brdr pltcl ssus. But f th Lbur gvrnmnt ws t hv n ncms plcy, t hd t tk n th strngth f th shp-flr rgnstns; nd whthr wrkrs wntd pltcs r nt, thy wr gng t hv pltcs rmmd dwn thr thrts.

Th mst bvus rgnstn t gv ld n ndustry ws th Cmmunst Prty, whch vr snc th Scnd Wrld Wr hd mntnd sgnfcnt nflunc mng ndustrl mltnts. But th Cmmunst Prty ws n dffcults. t hd lrdy suffrd srus blws n th md-ffts t th tm f th Hungrn Rvlutn, nd thugh t hd rgnd mmbrs n th rly sxts, ts cmpstn hd bcm mr mddl clss. Nw t ws nhbtd frm n ll-ut fght gnst th Lbur gvrnmnt by tw fctrs. Frstly, numbr f ts mmbrsnd supprtrs hd wn hgh plcs n th trd unn burucrcy. Th Prty ws nt prprd t dfnd shp-flr rgnstn t th xtnt f ffndng ts frnds n th burucrcy. Scndly, th Prty ws cmmttd t strtgy f strngthnng th lft wng n th Lbur Prty nd thus pushng Lbur t th lft. t tm whn th Lbur "lfts wr mvng rght s fst s thy culd, ths ws dffcult strtgy t crry thrugh. n ny cs t prvntd th Prty frm tryng t mbls th ndustrl ppstn t Wlsn nd turn t nt n ndpndnt pltcl frc.

s rsult mny Cmmunst Prty mltnts bcm dsllusnd wth th Prty. vn f thy dd nt ctully lv th Prty, thy tndd t ct mr nd mr n thr wn nttv rthr thn n c-rdntd wy. fw Turnd t Msm fr n ltrntv, thugh ths usully ld t th strl dd-nd f cmptng splntr grups.

f curs S ws n n pstn t tk vr frm th Cmmunst Prty. But th nw stutn dd pn up th pssblty fr S t trnsfrm tslf, prvdng t ws rdy t rdclly chng ts styl f wrk.

Ths mnt rssssmnt f th grups strtgc rnttn t th Lbur Prty. ll lng S hd pntd t th lmts f Lbur Prty wrk. Wrkrs wr gttng lss nd lss ntrstd n th trdtnl rfrmst rgnstnss thr shp-flr pwr grw. S hd gvn lttl crdnc t th vw tht rvlutnry prty culd b bult wthn th Lbur Prty, r by splt wthn tht Prty.

t th vry sm tm, snc th pprtunts fr trd unn wrk wr vry lmtd fr mst cmrds, th Lbur Prty nd spclly th Yung Sclsts hd bn sn s mlu whr rvlutnrs culd prt, nd mk cntct wth t lst sm f th mr clss-cnscus wrkrs wh wr rund. S mmbrs fught fr thr ds n th Lbur Prty nd t rn th rght t crtcs thy cnvssd, cllctd subs, rgnsd bzrs nd prtcptd, smwht cynclly, n th whl un-pltcl rutn f lcl Lbur Prty lf.

s th nt-wrkng-clss ntur f th Lbur gvrnmnt bcm clr t mr nd mr f ts frmr supprtrs, th Lbur Prty s mmbrshp rgnstn wnt nt vn shrpr dcln. Mny Prty ctvsts lft th Prty (fr xmpl, n th Lndn Brugh f Hrngy, n lss thn sx Lbur cuncllrs rsgnd frm th Prty n th prd frm 1966 t 1968). But n th bsnc f ny fcus t ttrct thm, thr ws n pssblty f n ffctv lft rgrupmnt. n shrt, th stutn ws n f crumblng rthr thn f splt, nd n pprprt rspns ws clld fr. smpl dcsn t qut th Lbur Prty n gvn dy wuld hv bn sy but mstkn. Thr wr hug dffrncs btwn th ctv lft-wng Lbur Pncs n sm rs nd th mrbund r pnly rclst prts n thrs; th pc f dsllusn vrd frm n ndvdul t nthr; nd th stutn ws cmplctd by th fct tht, fllwng th dprtur f Kp Lft, Yung Gurd fund tslf th ffctv ldrshp f th dmttdly much dmnshd Yung Sclsts, nd th cmrds wr, qut rghtly, rluctnt t bndn ths rl.

Wht ws ndd ws thrughgng rrnttn f th grup. n S Cnfrnc n July1965 crrd th fllwng rslutn:

Th S Grup rjcts th Lbur Prty s n nstrumnt fr scl chng; rjcts t s mlu fr mss cnvrsn t sclst cnscusnss; nd ss n t prmrly n rn fr dlgcl cnflct, lnk t lvng wrkng-clss udnc nd surc f ndvdul rcrutmnt t rvlutnry prgrmm.

Wht ths mnt n th grund ws splld ut n n rtcl nLbur Wrkr:

Th pln truth s, tht nly smll mnrty f Lburs mllns r n ny wy pltclly ctv, nd lrg prcntg f th ctv r mschstclly bsssd wth th tt tckts nd mrkng up lctrl rgstrs bvusly Mrxsts shuld tk ths pstns whch gv ccss t th drct wrkrs rgnstns. But n th wrds nd GMCs th prctc f buyng th rght t dscuss pltcs by vr-fulfllng th cnvssng nrms, shuld cs r b rducd t th mnmum. Fr th lft th Lbur Prty s pltfrm fr pltcl dscussn nd th wnnng vr f ndvduls t rvlutnry prgrmm. [20]

But phsd wthdrwl frm th Lbur Prty ws nly hlf th stry. Th struggl n Brtn ws frgmntd, nd rvlutnrs hd t fnd thr wy nt th frgmnts.

Th mn struggl ws t b n ndustry, nd hr th S grups frcs wr stll ptfully wk. Thr ws hrdly ny unn whr S cmrds wr bl t ntrvn. n th U thr wr numbr f xprncd mltnts but thy wr lmst ll cncntrtd n n fctry NV n Nrth Lndn. Th lft n th U ws n th scndnt, prprng t rplc th rght-wng Crrn wth Hugh Scnln, but t th sm tm thy wr n sm cnfusn, fllwng Rg Brchs brk wth th Cmmunst Prty.

t ws ut f ths bs n th U tht th mst sgnfcnt ntrvntn n th ndustrl fld rs. Th cnvnr f NV, Gff Mtchll, ws nvlvd n lgl dsput, nd fllwng ctn t supprt hm, th NV Shp Stwrds Cmmtt dcdd t brdn ut th struggl nd cnvnd mtng t lunch th Lndn Shp Stwrds Dfnc Cmmtt. Th mtng ws hld n 16 Jnury 1966 nd ttrctd sm tw hundrd ppl, but thr qurtrs f thm ndustrl wrkrs, frm 23 dffrnt unns.

Th pltfrm spkrs ncludd tw S mmbrs frm NV, Gff Mtchll nd Gff Crlssn, nd nthr S mmbr, Jm Hggns f th PU. Thr wr ls tw Cmmunst Prry mmbrs Rg Brch, n U Dvsnl rgnsr nd lng-stndng Cmmunst Prty mltnt, nw svrly crtcl f th Prtys prlmntrsm, nd Jm Hls, chrmn f th buldng wrkrs Jnt Sts Cmmtt.

Th rslutn unnmusly dptd by th mtng ws rmrkbl n brngng tgthr wht wr t b th mn ssus fcng Brtsh wrkrs vr th cmng dcd:

Ths Cnfrnc f rnk nd fl Trd Unnsts s dply prturbd t th prpsd, nd ctul, ntrvntn by th Gvrnmnt nt stblshd wg ngttns.

W qully dprct th thrts f lgsltn gnst th Trd Unnsts nd rnk nd fl mltnts wh hv bn mnly rspnsbl vr th pst yrs n mprvng th wgs nd cndtns n ndustry.

W r ppsd t th Gvrnmnts ncms Plcy whch hs nthng n cmmn wth Sclst plnnng; s lkws w r ppsd t ths Trd Unn ffcls wh supprt th Gvrnmnt n ths ssus.

t s ur blf tht th s-clld ncms Plcy, th thrts f lgsltn nd th ntrfrnc n wg ngttns cn nly strngthn th mplyrs n thr ffrts t smsh th Shp Stwrds nd th rnk nd fl mvmnts.

Th blty f S cmrds t tk th nttv n hlpng t lunch vntur f ths srt ws n mprtnt ndctn f th grups dvlpmnt. But th vntur tslf ws n sm snss prmtur. Th SSDC (nd th cuntrprts st up n thr pns f th cuntry) md t unt rnk nd fl mvmnt whch dd nt yt xst. gnrl crss-unn bdy f ths sn s mnngful nly f t brngs tgthr rnk nd fl currnts n numbr f unns nd ndustrs. nd n 1965 such currnts dd nt xst. Th SSDC tslf ws rltvly shrt lvd, thugh ts nflunc n nsprng thr nttvs cnntbgnrd.

n mprtnt thng whch th Lndn SSDC dd chv ws th publctn f th bk ncms Plcy, Lgsltn nd Shp Stwrds. t ws wrttn by tw S mmbrs. Tny Clff nd Cln Brkr, nd hd n ntrductn by Rg Brch, wrttn btwn hs brk wth th Cmmunst Prty nd hs rtrt nt sctrn Msm.

Th bk st ut n clr ndnnsctrn mnnr th mn lns f th nlyss S hd bn dvlpng vr th prvus cupl f yrs. t bgn wth gnrl cnsdrtn f th cnmc stutn tht hd ld th rulng clss t strt mpsng ncms plcy. t thn lkd t th xstng stutn n th wgs frnt nd n prtculr shwd th mprtnc f th phnmnn f wg drft n th prcdng prd. t cntrstd thrlf shp stwrds wth th full-tm unn ffcls wh wr shwn t b bcmng ncrsngly cnsrvtv nd mptnt. Fnlly t lkd t th pttrn f strks vr th prcdng prd, n whch wrkng-clss Strngth hd bn rflctd by th prdmnnc f shrt, unffcl nd gnrlly succssful strks, nd prdctd tht wth th ntrductn f lgsltn gnst trd unn rghts th stutn wuld hv t chng.

Th bk clsd wth cll t ctn, strssng th nd fr pltcl s wll s n ndustrl rspns.

Th frst ssntl tsk fr ny wrkr s tht f nsurng tht hs wn mmdt rgnstn s n fghtng shp; tht vry fctry nd plc f wrk hs jnt stwrds cmmtt (ncludng ll stwrds rgrdlss f thr unn mmbrshp, nd cvrng wht-cllr wrkrs lk drughtsmn t); tht vry cmpny wth dffrnt fctrs s cvrd by cmbnd stwrds cmmtts t c-rdnt ctvts nd prvnt "splttng" ctvts by th mplyrs. Mr brdly, th rnk nd fl must fnd frms f rgnstn-r rnk-nd-fl cmmtts, tc.tht cn d th jb th Trds Cuncls usd t d. nly th nw rgnstns must b bsd n th fctrs rthr thn n ggrphcl plc f rsdnc.

Mst f ths tndncs r n thr nfncy, but th thrt t th shp stwrds s nw s cut tht th mplmnttn f ths bsc tsks must b cclrtd nd lrgly chvd n rltvly shrt tm, crtng th cndtns fr th frmtn f ntnl shp stwrds mvmntn d whch, snc th Frst Wrld Wr, hs xstd lmst slly n th mnds f sm f ths whm Hrld Wlsn clls "wrckrs" nd whm w s s th ptntl buldrs f th mghtst sclst mvmnt yt n th hstry f Brtn. [21]

Th ncms Plcy bk ws n mprtnt stp frwrd fr S. t ws sld systmtclly by prcss f vstng ny dscvrbl cntct n th lbur mvmnt. t ws wdly rd nd pprctd by mltnts nd nbld S t b rcgnsd s prt f rl mvmnt, rthr thn s grup f tlntd but sltd thrtcns. But th vry fct tht th grup ws nw nggd n th rl wrld md t suscptbl t dft, nd vry rl dft sn fllwd.

s hs lrdy bn mntnd, n f Ss fw ndustrl rts ws n th Nrth Wst Lndn ngnrng fctry NV. NV hd bn knwn s mltnt fctry snc th rly ffts, nd hd n xcllnt rcrd fr wgs nd cndtns. t hd strng nd dmcrtc shp stwrds rgnstn. But f NV ws n xcllnt xmpl f wrkng clss strngth n th ffts, t ls shrd th wknsss. NV ws mr r lss sltd frm nghburng fctrs. ndd, mst f thm prbbly flt sns f jlusy t NVs suprr cndtns.

Fr lng tm th Cmmunst Prty hd hld th pltcl ldrshp f th fctry. Gff Crlssn, fundr-mmbr f th Sclst Rvw grup, hd bn stwrd fr mny yrs, but t ws nly n th md-sxts, fllwng ntrnl dsputs nd dmrlstn n th Cmmunst Prty, tht h ws bl t ttrct thr stwrds twrds S pltclly. By 1966, but th rm f th fundng f th SSDC, t ws pssbl t stblsh n S brnch t NV-Ss frst fctry brnch, nd rltvly Strng n, hvng but 12 mmbrs, ncludng th cnvnr nd svrl stwrds.

But by ths tm th whl rgnstn ws undr ttck. Th Lbur Gvrnmnts gnrl ttck n wrkrs ws bng prllld by mplyrs mvs t smsh shp-flr rgnstn n vrus fctrs. NV hd bn tkn vr by n mrcn cmpny. ftr ttmpts t ntrduc wrk study nd prductvty brgnng, th mngmnt lunchd n ll-ut ssult n th vrus grmnts stblshd by th wrkrs vr th prvus 20 yrs, nd thn, n 1966,nnuncd tht th fctry wuld b clsd. Dspt th lng rcrd f mltncy, th stwrds wr unbl t mbls n ffctv struggl gnst th clsur, nd vntully th ldng S mltnts wr sckd. ftr ths th mngmnt nnuncd tht th fctry wuld rmn pn wth rducd lbur frc.[22]

Th NV dft hd sm mprtnt lssns fr S. Frstly, t shwd tht n th chngd stutn, mltncy nd rgnstn wthn n wrkplc ws gng t b ncrsngly ndqut. Scndly, t suggstd tht n qut lgtmt rctn gnst substtutnst ntns f ldrshp, S hd gn t fr. Th qustn f pltcl ldrshp wuld hv t b tkn mr srusly.

Th rst f Ss ndustrl ntrvntn n ths prd ws lrgly frm th utsd. nd lthugh th Lbur Gvrnmnts plcs wr rsng th pltcl lvl, mst struggls wr stll lclsd nd frgmntry. Ths nbld S cmrds n th lclts t ntrvn, vn f th ntrvntn ws ftn t th lvl f turnng duplctr hndls nd mblsng supprt fr mss pckts.

S mmbrs gv cntnung supprt t th lng strk f buldng wrkrs n th Mytns st t th Brbcn, Lndn, n 1967, whr mngmnt md cnsstnt ttmpt t smsh ll unn rgnstn n th st. S cmrds prtcptd n svrl mss pckts, ncludng th n n ctbr 1967 whn thr wr shrp clshs wth th plc durng whch 24 rrsts wr md (but n thrd f ths rrstd wr S cmrds).

nthr strk rund whch S cmrds rgnsd n 1967 ws tht t th Rbrts-rundl txtl mchnry fctry n Stckprt. Ths ws n ffcl strk n dfnc f unn rgnstn, but much f th mst dynmc sldrty ctn ncludng dmnstrtns f svrl hundrd wrkrs nd clshs wth th plc ws rgnsd ndpndntly f th ffcl mchn.

n ths dsputs, nd mny smlr f lss drmtc ns whch tk plc up nd dwn th cuntry, ctv prtcptn nbld gd cntcts t b md nd fw rcruts wn.

nthr r f wrk whch nbld S t bgn mplntng tslf n th wrkng clss ws th tnnts struggl. Sm struggls wr gnst prvt lndlrds. Fr xmpl, th slngtn brnch f th Cmpgn gnst Rcl Dscrmntn ( bdy st up n 1965 t cuntr grwng mnfsttns f rclsm) wth full nd ctv prtcptn f S mmbrs, rgnsd cmpgn n 1966 gnst Mrs D Lusgnn. Ths ldy ws th wnr f sm 25 huss n Nrth Lndn, mnly ccupd by blck ppl, ntrus fr hgh rnts nd bd cndtns; sh furthr ggrvtd th stutn by dscrbng hr tnnts s Rubbsh Ppl. dmnstrtn chvd bth cnsdrbl publcty nd sm rductn n th rnts. Thugh th ssu ws hghly lclsd, t prvdd n xmpl f stutn whr S ntrvntn culd ctully mk sm dffrnc nd thus hlp t snk rts fr th rgnstn.

Mr wdsprd ws ctn n cuncl rnts. Th Lbur Gvrnmnt hd dcdd t cut husng subsds, nd thrby frc drmtc rnt ncrss. n mny bg cts t ws Lbur cuncls wh hd t crry thrugh th ncrss.

Th xprnc f th Nrth Lndn brugh f Hrngy my srv s n xmpl f th typ f ntrvntn S mmbrs wr bl t mk. Whn th Cuncl nnuncd rnt ncrss n Mrch 1967, S hd nt sngl cuncl tnnt n th r. t dd, hwvr, hv numbr f rsnbly wll-knwn Lbur Prty ctvsts. Ths, tgthr wth thr sympthtc Lbur lft-wngrs, ncludng fur cuncllrs, sgnd publc sttmnt t th prss dplrng th ncrss. Ths ncurrd th wrth f th Lbur Prty, but nbld th sttng up f n ctn Cmmtt whch hld mtngs n th stts, dstrbutd lflts nd crcultd pttn. s rsult Tnnts ssctns wr st up n mst stts, nd th ctn Cmmtt tslf dspprd n fvur f Fdrtn f Tnnts ssctns. Th mvmnt culmntd wth lbby f th Cuncl by but 500 ppl; fw mnr cncssns wr gnd. Whl S clrly culd nt tk ll th crdt, th mvmnt wuld lmst crtnly nt hv dvlpd n th sm wy wthut S ntrvntn.

Th prd 1964-67 sw S tk dcsv stp wy frm bng mr prpgnd grup. ndd, n purly prpgnd trms thr ws sclng dwn f ctvty. Th dcsn t mk Lbur Wrkr frtnghtly frm Jnury 1965 ws mstk; dspt sm lvly ssus, th ppr ws scrppy nd ftn rrlvnt t th chngd ctvty f th grup. Th ppr mprvd mrkdly ftr th rturn t mnthly publctn n lt 1966.

But th chngd styl f ctvty dd prsnt srus prblms. s lng s S ws wthn th Lbur Prry thr ws frmwrk wthn whch spcfc ssus culd b rltd t ch thr. Rclsm, frgn plcy, husng, ductn nd ncms plcy culd ll b lctd n th cntxt f struggl gnst th Prtys rght wng.

Wthut th Lbur Prry t srv s fcus, thr ws tndncy fr S cmrds t s ch struggl n sltn, t submrg thmslvs n prtculr frgmnt nd pstpn th qustn f gnrlstn t rmt futur.

ssntlly ths ws hlthy stutn. ftr 1964 thr wr tw mn dngrs fr S. n ws rslutnry sclsm, cncntrtn n prsrvng pltcl purty by pssng crrct rslutns n th GMCs. Th thr dngr ws syndclsm. n th shrt trm ths ws lssr vl, snc t mnt tht S ws bl t bgn t mmrs tslf n th wrkng clss. T us much-vrwrkd mtphr f Lnns, th stck hd t b bnt.[23]

By th nd f 1967 th mmbrshp hd ncrsd slwly but sgnfcntly vr 400 s gnst 200-dd whn Lbur cm t pwr. Mr mprtnt, t ws mmbrshp grd, nt smply t rgung th ln, but t mkng ntrvntns, lbt usully vry lw-lvl ns, nd t srvcng th ngng struggl. Wthut th bs, nd vn mr mprtntly, th rnttn stblshd n ths prd, th brkthrugh f 1968 culd nt hv tkn plc.

  Prt 2: Twrds rvlutnry prty

1968 s yr ffrd unprcdntd pprtunts t th rvlutnry lft. Rvlutnry ds chvd wdsprd currncy, ndd bcm trndy n sm crcls. Rvlutnry sclsts suddnly fund thmslvs swmmng wth th strm n lrmng xprnc fr ths lng prctcd n swmmng gnst t.

ntrntnlly t ws yr f mmntus vnts. n Jnury th Ntnl Lbrtn Frnt n Vtnm lunchd th Tt ffnsv, n whch thy scrd strkng succsss gnst th fr suprr mltry frcs f th Untd Stts. Th ntrntnl mvmnt gnst th wr rcvd nrmus ncurgmnt. n My studnt dmnstrtns n Frnc ld t crss whch rsultd n gnrl strk f tn mlln wrkrs. Th grups f th rvlutnry lft succdd n gnng wd currncy fr thr ds. nd n ugust th Russn nvsn f Czchslvk ld t dp ntrnl uphvl n th wrlds Cmmunst Prrs, numbr f whch dssctd thmslvs frm Russn ctn fr th frst tm n thr hstry.

n Brtn t ws yr f bth hps nd thrts. Th rpd dcln f supprt fr th Lbur gvrnmnt mnt tht lss nd lss ppl wr lkng t th Lbur Prty s fcus fr pltcl ctn. Th mn mptus fr th lft cm frm utsd th trdtnl rgnstns. Thr ws n upsurg f mltncy mng studnts, bgnnng wth th Lndn Schl f cnmcs ccuptn n 1967, nd sprdng thrughut Hghr ductn n 1968. Ths ws prllld by th grwth f lrg nd dmnstrtv mvmnt gnst th Vtnm Wr.

But th vcuum lft by dclnng supprt fr Lbur ls prducd mr snstr dvlpmnts. nch Pwll, tryng t fnd rcl scpgt fr cnmc dscntnt, md hystrcl spch n fvur f tghtr mmgrtn cntrl. H ws prmptly dsmssd frm th Try Shdw Cbnt, but wn cnsdrbl supprt mng sctns f wrkrs. n prtculr, Lndn dckrs struck nd mrchd n hs supprt.

ll ths undrlnd tw thngs. n, tht thr ws nw rl pssblty f buldng sclst rgnstn utsd th Lbur Prty; nd scndly, tht t ws bcmng ncrsngly urgnt t d s. md th frnzd ctvty f 1968, S hd nt nly t rspnd t vnts, but t trnsfrm tslf n th prcss.

Th studnt mvmnt ws n ntrntnl phnmnn, prducd by th mssv xpnsn f hghr ductn ndd by mdrn cptlsm. Thusnds f yung ppl wr xpsd t th cntrdctns btwn th dls f ductn nd th nd fr cptlsm t trn lw-lvl functnrs.

Th studnt mvmnt gnrtd mr thn ts fr shr f rmntc nnsns. Sm thrs rd bss nd th studnt vngurd sw studnts s rplcng th wrkng clss s th gncy f scl chng; thrs th studnt-wrkr llnc mr mdstly but qully unrlstclly sw studnts nd wrkrs s qul prtnrs.

But dspt ths th studnt mvmnt culd nt b gnrd by ny srus rvlutnrs. Frstly, bcus th mjrty f th studnts n struggl wuld g n t jn th grwng rnks f wht-cllr trd unnsts. nd scndly, vn f th mjrty f studnt rvlutnrs wuld sn submt t scl prssurs nd drp ut, numbr f thm culd b wn t rvlutnry rgnstn nd b ntgrtd nt t.

Bfr th Lndn Schl f cnmcs ccuptn n 1967, S studnts hd plyd lttl systmtc pn n studnt pltcs, nd crtnly hd n thught-ut strtgy fr studnt wrk. But numbr f S cmrds plyd ldng rl n th LS struggl, nd numbr f thr studnt ctvsts wr rcrutd t S. smlr pttrn ws rptd n th studnt bttls whch tk plc up nd dwn th cuntry durng 1968 nd 1969.

Th vrll pltcl nlyss tht S hd dvlpd ws vtl fr th ntrvntn n th studnt fld. Th tw thss tht S hd lwys strssd wr slf-ctvty nd th prmcy f th wrkng clss. Ssstrss n th wrkng clss prvntd t frm gvng n t th thrs f th studnt vngurd tht wr wdsprd t th tm. S cmrds lwys ld mphss n th ncssty fr sldrty wth wrkng clss struggls, nd n gnrl Ss rcrutmnt mng studnts ws n th bss f ts rnttn t th wrkng clss. t th sm tm, S hd n truck wth ths lk th Cmmunst Prty, wh usd n bstrct nvctn f th wrkng clss s n xcus fr kpng ut f ctul ngng struggls, nd cntnung t mmrs thmslvs n mnuvrs n th Ntnl UnnfStudnts.

Th studnt mvmnt ws nt cncrnd slly wth struggls nsd th cllgs; t ws nxtrcbly bund up wth th grwng mvmnt gnst th wr n Vtnm. Whn th US bmbng f Nrth Vtnm bgn n 1965, th Struggl gnst th wr ws ntlly crdntd by th CP-dmntd Brtsh Cuncl fr Pc n Vtnm, th mn ctvty f whch ws lvng up t clrgymn nd Lbur prs, rthr thn mss mblstn.

Frustrtn t th flur f th BCPV t d nythng ld t th crtn, n 1966, f th Vtnm Sldrty Cmpgn (VSC). Ths ws rgnlly st up by n unsy llnc f th pltcs f Th Wk (subsquntly th MG)[24] nd th fnncs f Brtrnd Russll. S mmbrs prtcptd n th fundtn f th VSC, but fr th frst yr f ts xstnc th prsnc ws tkn n nly.

Th ntl mstk f th VSC ws t cntr ts ppstn t th BCPV n prgrmm rthr thn mthd. t ws, f curs, qut rght t ttck th dsgustng pprtunsm f th BCPV, whch rfusd t rs th slgn Vctry t th NLF nd cntrd ts dmnds n pc. But mrly t tl lng bhnd th BCPV, shutng crrct slgns, dd nthng t hlp buld mss mvmnt.

By md-1967 th md ws chngng. Th NLF, dspt US trrr bmbng, ws clrly gnng grund, nd thus nsprng multn rthr thn pty; th nt-wr mvmnt n th US ws grwng; nd n Brtn, th studnt mvmnt ws lkng fr cus t dpt.

t ws t ths pnt tht S whch hd rgud fr sldrty pstn frm th vry bgnnng f th wr dcdd t mk ts ntrvntn n th VSC rthr mr vgrus. S cmrds rgud wth th xstng VSC ldrshp fr srus pprch t mss wrk; fr lng-trm prprtn fr dmnstrtn, wth systmtc wrk n th cllgs cmbnd wth mss lf-lttng f fctrs nd stts. S brnchs n th lclts hlpd t prpr th dmnstrtn n ctbr 1967. Th rsult ws sm thrty thusnd ppl n Grsvnr Squr (utsd th US mbssy), cnfrnttn wth th plc, nd th VSCs nm frmly n th pl

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