"The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientsfsc thinking"

→ The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientsfsc thinking

! , , !

- »

"The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientsfsc thinking":

As is generally known, science and education are one of strategic resources of the state, one of fundamental forms of culture of civilization, as well as competitive advantage of every individual. Global discoveries of modern life occur both deep in and at the junction of various sciences, and at that, often and often the more unusual the combination of sciences is, the wider range of scientific prospects is promised by non-standard conspectus of their combination, for example, biology and electronics, philology and mathematics, etc. Discoveries in one area stimulate development in other spheres of science as well. Scientific development of a society is a programmable and predictable phenomenon, and this issue is specifically dealt by the futurology science. Modern techniques of pedagogy, psychology, medicine and other sciences do not only enable orientation and informational pumping of human brain, but also the formation of an individuals character optimally suitable for the role of scientist. Unlike a computer, any human being has intuition - the element of thinking so far in no way replaceable (although some developments in this sphere are coming into being). Narrow specialization of scientists tapers the scope of their activity and is explained by an immense volume of information required for modern scientist. This problem is being solved (partially though) through a variety of actions intellectualization of computers, simplification of information (its reduction to short, but data intensive/high-capacity formulas and formulations), application of psycho-technologies. Psycho-technologies (mnemonics, educational games, hypnopaedia, (auto-) hypnosis, propaganda and advertising methods and techniques, including technotronic and pharmacological /nootropic preparations/, etc.) make it possible to solve the following problem. A black box concept applied in computer science designates a system into which the chaotic information is entered, and in a little while a version, hypothesis or theory is produced. A human being represents (with some reservations though) such a system. Information processing occurs consciously and subconsciously based on certain rules (program). The more information processing rules we enter, the fewer number of degrees of freedom remains in the system. Hence, it is desirable to enter the very basic axioms. Differences in programs (even mere default - but without lack of key information) form differences in opinions and argumentation. The longer the period of program operation is (including based on internal biological clock), the greater the effect one can expect. The provability of success is directly proportional to the quantity of samples/tests, hence it is desirable to build in basic mechanisms of scientific thinking at the earliest age possible in a maximum wide audience and to stimulate their active work, and in certain time intervals make evaluation and update of programs of thinking. Comprehension by an individual of new skills occurs only step-wise. Transition between two following mental conditions takes place: Ill never understand how this can be done and Ill never be able to do it and it is so obvious that I cant understand what needs to be explained here. Except for early childhood, the leaps of this kind occur when mastering reading and mastering writing, mastering all standard extensions of set of numbers (fractional, negative, rational numbers, but not complex numbers), when mastering the concept of infinitesimal value and its consequences (the limits), differentiation, when mastering integration, complex of specific abilities forming the phenomenon of information generating (in other words, in the course of transition from studying science or art to purposeful/conscious professional creative work). We hereby note that at any of these stages, for the reasons not quite clear to us, the leap may not occur. It means that certain ability has not turned into a stage of subconscious professional application and cannot be used randomly by an individual for the solution of problems he/she faces. At that, the required algorithm may be well known. In other words, an individual knows letters. He/she knows how to write them. He/she can form words from them. He/she can write a sentence. But! This work would require all his/her intellectual and mainly physical effort. For the reason that all resources of the brain are spent for the process of writing, errors are inevitable. It is obvious that despite formal literacy (the presence of knowledge of algorithm) an individual cannot be engaged in any activity for which the ability to write is one of the basic or at least essential skills. Similar state of an individual is widely known in modern pedagogy and is called functional illiteracy. Similarly, one can speak of functional inability to integrate (quite a frequent reason for the exclusion of the 1st and 2nd grade students from physical and mathematical departments). Curiously enough, at higher levels the leap does not occur so often, to the extent that it is even considered normal. The formula: An excellent student, but failed to make proper choice of vocation. Well, hes not a physicist by virtue of thinking well, thats the way (the leap allowing to mechanically employ specific style of thinking / physical in this case / did not occur). As to automatic creativity, these concepts in general are considered disconnected, and individuals for whom the process of creation of new essentialities in science and culture is the ordinary professional work not demanding special strain of effort are named geniuses. However, a child sick with functional illiteracy would perceive his peer who has mastered writing to the extent of being able of doing it without looking into a writing-book, a genius, too! Thus, we arrive at the conclusion that creativity at the level of simple genius is basically accessible to everyone. Modern education translates to pupils knowledge (of which, according to research, 90 % is being well and almost immediately forgotten) and very limited number of skills which would in a step-wise manner move the individual to the following stage of intellectual or physical development. One should know right well that endless school classes and home work, exhausting sports trainings are no more than eternal throwing of cube in the hope that lucky number will come out in the hope of a click. And the click may occur at the first dash. It may never occur as well. Accordingly, the philosophy repetition is the mother of learning in effect adds up to a trial-and-error method which has been for a long time and fairly branded as such by TRIZists (the followers of Inventive Problems Solution Theory). As a matter of fact, the uneven nature of transition between in-and out- states at the moment of click suggests that it is a question of structural transformation of mentality. That is, click requires destruction of a structure (a pattern of thought, a picture of the world) and creation of another one in which a new skill is included hardwarily to be used automatically. Restrictions stimulate internal activity. It is proven that creative task Draw something without setting pre-determined conditions with restrictions is carried out less productively and less originally than the task: Draw an unusual animal with a pencil during 30 minutes (Sergey Pereslegin). Required personal qualities traits of character /temperamental attributes/ may be divided into four conventional groups: necessary, desirable, undesirable and inadmissible. Knowledge can be divided into two groups: means and ways of information processing (including philosophy, logic, mathematics, etc.), the so-called meta-skills or meta-knowledge/ which are universal and applicable in any field of activity), and the subject (subjects) matter per se. From the view point of methodology all methods of scientific knowledge can be divided into five basic groups: 1. Philosophical methods. These include dialectics and metaphysics. 2. General scientific (general logical) approaches and research methods - analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, abstraction, generalization, idealization, analogy, modeling, stochastic-statistical methods, systemic approach, etc. 3. Special-scientific methods: totality of techniques, research methods used in one or another field of knowledge. 4. Disciplinary methods, i.e. a set of methods applied in one or another discipline. 5. Methods of interdisciplinary research a set of several synthetic, integrative methods generated mainly at the cross-disciplinary junction of branches of science. Scientific cognition is characterized by two levels - empirical and theoretical. Characteristic feature of empirical knowledge is the fact fixing activity. Theoretical cognition is substantial cognition /knowledge per se/ which occurs at the level of high order abstraction. There two ways to attempt to solve a problem: search for the necessary information or investigate it independently by means of observation, experiments and theoretical thinking. Observation and experiment are the most important methods of research in the process of scientific cognition. It is often said that theory is generalization of practice, experience or observations. Scientific generalizations often imply the use of a number of special logical methods: 1) Universalization /globbing/ method which consists in that general points/aspects/ and properties observed in the limited set of experiments hold true for all possible cases; 2) Idealization method consisting in that conditions are specified at which processes described in laws occur in their pure form, i.e. the way they cannot occur in reality; 3) Conceptualization method consisting in that concepts borrowed from other theories are entered into the formulation of laws, these concepts acquiring acceptably /accurate/ exact meaning and significance. Major methods of scientific cognition are: 1) Method of ascending from abstract to concrete. The process of scientific cognition is always connected with transition from extremely simple concepts to more difficult concrete ones. 2) Method of modeling and principle of system. It consists in that the object inaccessible to direct research is replaced with its model. A model possesses similarity with the object in terms of its properties that are of interest for the researcher. 3) Experiment and observation. In the course of experiment the observer would isolate artificially a number of characteristics of the investigated system and examine their dependence on other parameters. It is necessary to take into account that about 10 - 25 % of scientific information is proven outdated annually and in the near future this figure can reach 70%; according to other sources, the volume of information doubles every 5 years. It means that the system of education/teaching and non-stop retraining applied in some cases will become a universal and mandatory phenomenon, whereas the boundary between necessary and desirable knowledge will become more vague and conventional. In modern conditions active and purposeful studying of someones future sphere (spheres) of activity should start 4-5 years prior to entering the university. Considerable development will be seen in preventive (pre-emptive, anticipatory) education taking into account prospects of development of science for 3-5-10 years from no on. Masterful knowledge of methods of scientific-analytical and creative thinking is becoming the same social standard and a sign of affiliation to elite social groups as, for example, the presence of higher education diploma. The law of inverse proportionality of controllability and the ability to development says the more the system is controllable, the less it is capable of development. Controllable development may only be overtaking/catching up/. Now, a few thoughts about errors in the course of training. Traditional approach tends to consider an error as the lack of learning, assiduity, attention, diligence, etc. As a result the one to blame is a trainee. Error should be perceived as a constructive element in the system of heuristic training. An educational institution is just the institute where the person should make mistakes under the guidance of a teacher. An important element of cognitive system is professional terminology. The lack of knowledge of terms would not release anyone from the need to understand Each term contains the concentrated mass of nuances and details distinguishing the scientific vision of the matter in question from the ordinary, unscientific understanding It should be mentioned that the process of teaching/educating/ is a stress which has pluses and minuses, whereas the process of studying is a much smaller stress. One of the main tasks in terms of (self-) education may be the formation of active desire (internal requirement) to study and be engaged in (self-) education with independent search of appropriate means and possibilities. Special consideration should be given to teaching/training means and methods, i.e. what is comprehensible to one group of trainees may be useless for others. Major differentiation would be seen in age categories plus individual features. Training games are quite a universal tool used for a wide range of subjects and development of practical skills, since the game reflects the trainees behavior in reality. It is a system that provides an immediate feedback. Instead of listening to a lecture the trainee is given the individual lesson adapted for his/her needs. Game is modeling of reality and method of influencing it by the trainee. Some minuses of game include conventionality and schematic nature of what is going on and the development of the trainees behavioral and cogitative stereotypes. Major strategic consequences of wide spread of scientific thinking skills may include systemic (including quantitative - qualitative) changes in the system of science, education and industry, sharp increase of labor force mobility (both white and blue collar) and possible global social-economic and social-political changes.

Part 1. Meta-skills:

Pass preliminary test by means of Kettels 16-factor questionnaire (form C), test your IQ (Intelligence Quotient) using Aizencs test. Undergo testing for operative and long-term memory, attention distribution, noise immunity and will. Plan the development of these qualities in your character.

Methods of work with the text

(W. Tuckman Educational Psychology. From Theory to Application. Florida. State University. 1992):

1. Look through the text before reading it in detail to determine what it is about.

2. Focus your attention on the most significant places (semantic nodes) in the text.

3. Keep short record (summary/synopsis) of the most significant facts.

4. Keep close watch of understanding of what you read. If something appears not quite understood, re-read the paragraph once again.

5. Check up and generalize (analyze) what you have read in respect to the purpose of your reading.

6. Check up the correctness of understanding of separate words and thoughts in reference literature.

7. Quickly resume the work (reading) if you have been interrupted.

Training of fast reading Fast Reader 32 Program. Download the program: http://www.nodevice.ru/soft/windows/education/trenning/5072.html http://kornjakov.ru/index.htm, http://www.freesoft.ru/? id=670591 - for handheld computer. Plan 2-week result-oriented trainings - your current maximum is + 50%.

Methods of critical and creative thinking

Critical thinking:

1. Analytical thinking (information analysis, selection of necessary facts, comparison, collation of facts, phenomena). Useful questions in this connection are who?, what?, where?, when?, why?, where?, what for?, how?, how many/much?, what?(which?) to be asked in the most unusual combinations, while trying to find (to suppose) all options of answers.

2. Associative thinking (determination of associations with the previously studied familiar facts, phenomena, determination of associations with new qualities of a subject, phenomenon, etc.).

3. Independence of thinking (the absence of dependence on authorities and/or stereotypes, prejudices, etc.).

4. Logic thinking (the ability to build the logic of provability of the decision made, the internal logic of a problem being solved, the logic of sequence of actions undertaken for the solution of the problem, etc.).

5. Systemic thinking (the ability to consider the object, the problem in question within the integrity of their ties/relations and characteristics).

Creative thinking:

1. Ability of mental experimentation, spatial imagination.

2. Ability of independent transfer of knowledge for the decision of new problem, task, search of new decisions.

3. Combinatory abilities (the ability to combine the earlier known methods, ways of task/problem solution in a new combined, complex way the morphological analysis).

4. Prognostic abilities (the ability to anticipate possible consequences of the decisions made, ability to establish cause-and-effect relations).

5. Heuristic way of thinking, intuitive inspiration, insight. The above stated abilities can be supplemented by specific abilities to work with information, for which purpose it is important to be able to select required (for specific goals) information from various sources to analyze it, systematize and generalize the data obtained in accordance with the cognitive task set forth, the ability to reveal problems in various fields of knowledge, in the surrounding reality, to make grounded hypotheses for their solution. It is also necessary to be able to put experiments (not only mental, but also natural), make well-reasoned conclusions, build the system of proofs, to be able to process statistically the data obtained from test and experimental checks, to be able to generate new ideas, possible ways of search of decisions, registration of results, to be able to work in the collective, while solving cognitive, creative tasks in cooperation with others, at that playing different social roles, as well as to be master of art and culture of communication.

Research and search methods of information processing:

1. Independent search and selection of information on specific problem.

2. Information analysis for the purpose of selection of facts, data necessary for the description of the object of study, its characteristics, qualities; for selection of facts conducive to the provability and/or refutation of the vision of the task/problem solution; building of facts, data analyzed in the logical sequence of proofs, etc.

3. Definition, vision of problems that need examination and solution.

4. Making hypotheses with definition of ways to check (solve) them.

5. Determination of methods, ways of solution of the investigated problem, stages of its solution by an individual or joint, group effort.

6. Registration of results of research or search activity.

7. Argumentation of the results achieved.

8. Projecting the occurrence of new problems in the given area of knowledge, practical activities.

Universal plan of scientific management (SM)

1. Statement of an overall goal (task) - minimum, optimum and maximum.

2. Setting of intermediate goals (tasks), their prioritization, time-frames of implementation.

3. Mechanisms (methods, schemes) of their achievement.

4. Required logistical, informational and financial support.

5. Personnel (including statement of problem before each employee following detailed instructional advice and determination of implementation time-frames).

6. Ways and means of control, possible failures and disturbances, methods, time-frames, personnel, materials, equipment, information and finance to rectify the latter.

7. Task adjustment in case of changes of situation, adaptation of the work performed (at all stages) to a new problem.

TRIZ Inventive Problems Solution Theory (IPST)

Algorithm of activity:

1. A. Set a task. B. Imagine ideal result (is there a problem at all?). C. What prevents from the achievement of a goal (find contradiction), why does it prevent from its achievement (reveal cause-and-effect relations). D. On what conditions prevention will not occur?

2. A. Required (possible) internal changes (the sizes: larger, smaller, longer, shorter, thicker, thinner, deeper, shallower, vertically, horizontally, sloping, in parallel, in ledges, in layers/slices, transpose/rearrange, crosswise, convergence, to surround, to mix/stir, borders; the quantity: more, less, proportions, to divide, attach, add, remove; form: usual, unusual, rounded, straight, jags, unevenness, rough, equal, even/smooth, damage proof, delays, accidents, foolproofing and protection from larceny, to add; movement: to accelerate, slow down, stir up/revive/brighten up, stop, direction, deviation, pulling, pushing away, to block, lift, lower/pull down, rotate, fluctuate, arouse; condition: hot, cooler, firmer, softer, opened, closed, pre-assembled, disposable, combined, divided, hardening, liquid, gaseous, powder-like, wearability, to grease, moist, dry, isolated, gelatinous, plasmic, elastic, resists, superposes/matches). B. Division of an object (and/or subject) into independent parts: a. Segregation of weak (including potentially weak) part (parts). b. Segregation of required and sufficient part (parts). c. Segregation of identical (including duplicating, similar) parts (including in other systems). d. Division into parts with different functions. C. External changes. D. Changes in the adjacent objects. a. Establishment of links between the previously independent objects performing one work (including a network). b. Removal of objects because of transfer of their functions to other objects. c. Increase in the number of objects at the expense of the reverse side of the area. E. Measurement of time: faster, more slowly, longer, eternal, single-step, cyclic, time-wise marked, update, variable. F. Ascertainment of ties with other fields of knowledge (how is this contradiction solved there? what can be borrowed from there at all?). Prototypes in nature. G. Read the dictionaries for verbal associations (including non-standard). H. In case of failure revert to the initial problem to expand its situation/formulation.

3. A. Introduce necessary changes in the object (work). B. Introduce changes in other objects connected with the given one. C. Introduce changes in methods and expand the sphere of use of the object. D. Ask questions how can we achieve the same result without using this product (using it partially) or without doing this work (doing it partially)?, how can we make the product (work) easier, more durable, safer, cheaper, in a more accelerated manner, pleasant, useful, universal, convenient, friendly, more ergonomic, harmless, pure, reliable, effective, attractive and bright, portable, valuable, status ranking, etc. E. Conduct preliminary tests, finish off, if necessary. Develop IGM (income generation mechanism). F. Check the applicability of the solution(s) found in respect of other problems. G. Take out a patent for the idea. See also: www.triz-journal.com, http://www.altshuller.ru/

Concepts, substance and laws of dialectics

1) The world (the being, reality) exists objectively, i.e. irrespective of the will and conscience of a human being. 2) The world has not been created by anybody and cannot be destroyed by anybody. It exists and develops in accordance with natural laws. There are no supernatural forces in it. 3) The world is unique and there are no extra-mundane spheres and phenomena in it (standing above the world or beyond the world) that are absolutely abjoint from each other. Diverse objects and the phenomena of the reality represent various kinds of moving matter and energy. 4) The world is coherent and is in eternal, continuous movement, development. Objects of the reality interact with each other, influence upon each other. In the process of development qualitative changes in objects, including natural transition from the lowest forms to the higher, take place. 5) Natural development of a matter through a number of natural steps (the inorganic/inanimate nature/abiocoen/ life society) has led to the origin of human being, intellect, conscience. The crucial role in the segregation of human being from animality and the formation of its conscience was played by labor, its social nature, transition of the human beings animal ancestors to regular production and application of instruments of labor. 6) Society being the higher step of development of substance includes all lowest forms and levels (mechanical, physical, chemical, biological) on the basis of which it has arisen, but is not reduced to them only. It exists and develops on the basis of social laws which qualitatively differ from the laws of the lowest forms. The paramount law of social development is the determinant role of production in the life of the society. Mode of production of material life conditions social, political and spiritual processes of life in general. 7) The world is knowable. Human knowledge is unlimited by nature, but is limited historically at each stage of its development and for each separate individual. The criterion for the verity of thinking and cognition is public practice. In recent years the need arose for the formation of higher form of dialectic-materialistic outlook - spiritual materialism. Spiritual materialism extends the line of classical materialism in terms of recognition of objective character of existence, its cognoscibility, natural evolution of substance from the lowest to the higher forms, exclusion of notions of supernatural from scientific beliefs/notions, etc. At the same time, spiritual materialism overcomes absolutization of superiority of material over the spiritual, contraposition and discontinuity of these fundamentals inherent in the former forms of materialism, and directs towards the revelation of their unity, complex interrelation, interpenetration, definite fixation of relations in which the material and spiritual determine each other in the process of functioning and development of objects. Three main laws of dialectics are: the law of transition from quantity to quality, the law of unity and conflict of opposites and the law of negation of negation. There is more to it than these three major laws in dialectics. Abscque hoc, there are a number of other dialectic laws concretizing and supplementing organic laws of dialectics expressed in categories substance and phenomenon, content and form, contingency and necessity, cause and effect, possibility and reality, individual, special and general, the dialectic triad: thesis, antithesis and synthesis. Categories and laws of dialectics exist within a certain system in which the substance/essence of dialectics proper is expressed.

Analysis of the decision-making methods without use of numerical values of probability (exemplificative of the investment projects).

In practice situations are often found when it is difficult enough to estimate the value of probability of an event. In such cases methods are often times applied which do not involve using numerical values of probabilities: maximax maximization of the maximum result of the project; maximin maximization of the minimum result of the project; minimax minimization of maximum losses; compromise Gurvitzs criterion: weighing of minimum and maximum results of the project. For decision-making on realization of investment projects a matrix is built. Matrix columns correspond to the possible states of nature, i.e. situations which are beyond of control of the head of an enterprise. Lines of the matrix correspond to possible alternatives of realization of the investment project strategies which may be chosen by the director. The matrix cells specify the results of each strategy for each state of nature. Example: The enterprise analyzes the investment civil-engineering design of a line for the production of new kind of product. There are two possibilities: the construction of a high power capacity line or to construct low power line. Net present value of the project depends on the demand for production, whereas the exact volume of demand is unknown, however, it is known that there are three basic possibilities: absence of demand, average demand and great demand. The matrix cells (see table 1) show net present value of the project at a certain state of nature, provided that the enterprise will choose the appropriate strategy. The last line shows what strategy is optimum in each state of nature. The maximax decision would be to construct a high power capacity line: the maximum net present value will thus be 300 which correspond to the great demand situation. The maximum criterion reflects the position of the enterprise director the optimist ignoring possible losses. The maximin decision, i.e. to construct a low power line: the minimum result of this strategy is the loss of 100 (which is better than possible loss of 200 in case of construction of a high power capacity line). The maximin criterion reflects the position of the director who is in no way disposed towards taking risk and is notable for his/her extreme pessimism. This criterion is quite useful in situations where risk is especially high (for example when the existence of an enterprise depends on the results of the investment project). Threat is determined by two components: possibilities and intention of the contestant.

Table 1. Example of construction of the matrix of strategy and states of nature for the investment project.

Strategy | State of nature : absence of demand | State of nature : medium demand | State of nature : great demand |
Construct a low power line | 100 | 150 | 150 |
Construct a high power capacity line | 200 | 200 | 300 |
Optimum strategy for the given state of nature | Construct a low power line | Construct a high power capacity line | Construct a high power capacity line |
--------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------

To apply the minimax criterion let us construct a matrix of regrets (see table 2). The cells of this matrix show the extent/value of regret, i.e the difference between actual and the best results which could have been achieved by the enterprise at the given state of nature. Regret shows what is being lost by the enterprise as a result of making wrong decision. The minimax decision corresponds to the strategy, whereby the maximum regret is minimal. In our case of low power line maximum regret makes 150 (in great demand situation) and for a high power capacity line 100 (in the absence of demand). As 100 <150, the minimax decision would be to construct a high power capacity line. The minimax criterion is oriented not so much towards actual as possible damages or loss of profit.

Table 2.

Example of structure of the matrix of regrets for minimax criterion

Strategy | State of nature: absence of demand | State of nature: medium demand | State of nature: great demand |
Construct a low power line | (-100) (-100) =0 | 200 150=50 | 300 150=150 |
Construct a high power capacity line | (-100) (-200) =100 | 200 200=0 | 300 300=0 |
Optimum strategy for the given state of nature | Construct a low power line | Construct a high power capacity line | Construct a high power capacity line |
--------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------

Gurvitzs criterion consists in that minimum and maximum results of each strategy are assigned weight. Evaluation of result of each strategy equals to the sum of maximum and minimum results multiplied by corresponding weight.

Lets assume that the weight of the minimum result is equal to 0.5, the weight of the maximum result equals to 0.5 as well (it is the probabilistic characteristic; in this case probability of onset of any option of events = 50 %, as far as we have 2 options : 50 % + 50 % = 100 %; if there will be 3 options, then the ratio can be 33,33 (%) for each or, for example, 20 %, 25 % and 55 %). Then the calculation for each strategy will be the following:

Low power line: 0.5 (-100) + 0.5 150 = (-50) + 75 = 25;

High power capacity line: 0.5 (-200) + 0.5 300 = (-100) + 150 = 50.

Gurvitzs criterion testifies in favor of the construction of high power capacity line (as 50> 25). Advantage and simultaneously disadvantage of Gurvitzs criterion consists in the necessity of assigning weights to the possible outcomes; it allows taking into account specificity of situation, however, assigning weights always implies some subjectivity. As a result of the fact that in real situations there is often lack of information on the probabilities of outcomes the use of the above methods in engineering of investment projects is quite justified. However, the choice of concrete criterion depends on the specificity of situations and individual preferences of an analyst (the companys strategy).

Data mining, getting/acquisition of information (it should be noted that many modern data mining techniques focus mainly on search of information based on key parameters (words, images, matrixes, algorithms), but in that way we will only be able to bring out ties/links that have already been exposed by someone else). According to the theory of information (Stanislav Yankovsky), requisite condition of activity of intellectual (higher) system is the redundancy of incoming and generated information, read and think to lay up in store/as a reserve, accumulate assets which expands your possibilities and get rid of liabilities which reduce your potential. Any phenomenon should be analyzed from the view point of what it gives to you and what it takes from you. Even two most universal resources money and information (sometimes time is added thereto) also limit to some extent the possibilities of their holder. A very important point in the evaluation of information is reliability of the source of information and credibility of data itself. Specific code of marking information carriers is applied for this purpose. Reliability of source: A absolutely reliable source; B usually reliable source; C quite reliable source; D not always reliable source; E unreliable source; F - reliability of source cannot be defined. Credibility of data: 1 credibility of data is proven by data from other sources; 2 data are probably correct; 3 data are possibly correct; 4 doubtful data; 5 data are improbable; 6 credibility of data cannot be established. It should be noted that many elements of scientific, research and analytical activity are weakly formalizable, in which connection practical experience in the concrete field of activity gains great importance.

Issues recommended for independent study: the Game theory, the theory of fields, the theory of crises, the chaos theory, the theory of relativity, the management, strategy and tactics theories, basics of logic and statistics concepts, substance/essence, stereotypes, paradoxes. See also: Software Archivarius 3000 http://www.likasoft.com - highly effective searcher in database on the basis of keywords.

Now, be prepared, it is going to be a little bit difficult.

Part 2. Basics of general theory of systems (GTS) and systemic analysis

The world as a whole is a system which, in turn, consists of multitude of large and small systems. In the classical theory of systems one can single out three various classes of objects: the primitive systems, which structure is invariable (for example, the mathematical pendulum); analytical systems, which almost always have fixed structure, but sometimes undergo bifurcations spasmodic changes of structure (simple ecosystem); chaotic systems continually changing their structure (for example, atmosphere of the Earth). Chaos is essentially an unstable structural system. In this sense chaos is a synonym of changeable, internally inconsistent, unstable developing system which cannot be referred to analytical structures. Having established the general principles of management in any systems, one can try to determine how the system should be organized to work most effectively. This approach to research of problems of management from general to particular, from abstract to concrete is named organizational or systemic. Such approach provides the possibility of studying of a considerable quantity of alternative variants, the analysis of limitations and consequences of decisions made. The system is a set of interacting elements, said Berthalanfie, one of the founders of the modern General Theory of Systems (GTS) emphasizing that the system is a structure in which elements somehow or other affect each other (interact). Is such definition sufficient to distinguish a system from non-system? Obviously, it is not, because in any structure its elements passively or actively somehow interact with each other (press, push, attract/draw, induce, heat up, get on someone nerves, feel nervous, deceive, absorb, etc.). Any set of elements always operates somehow or other and it is impossible to find an object which would not make any actions. However, these actions can be accidental, purposeless, although accidentally and unpredictably, they can be conducive to the achievement of some goal. Though a sign of action is the core, it determines not the concept of the system, but one of the essential conditions of this concept. The system is an isolated part, a fragment of the world, the Universe, possessing a special property emergence/emergent factor, relative self-sufficiency (thermodynamic isolation), said P. Etkins. But any object is a part or a Universe fragment, and each object differs from the others in some special property (emergence/emergent factor a property which is not characteristic of simple sum of all parts of the given system), including a place of its location, period of existence, etc. And at that, each object is to a certain degree thermodynamically independent, although is dependent on its environment. Hence, this definition also defines not only a system itself, but some consequences of systemic nature as well. Adequate/comprehensive/ definition of the concept system is possibly, non-existent, because the concept goal/purpose has been underestimated. Any properties of systems are ultimately connected with the concept of goal/purpose because any system differs from other systems in the constancy of its actions, and the aspiration to keep this constancy is a distinctive feature of any system. Nowadays the goal/purpose is treated as one of the elements of behavior and conscious activity of an individual which characterizes anticipation/vision of comprehension of the result of activity and the way of its realization by means of certain ways and methods. The purpose/goal acts as the way of integration of various actions of an individual in some kind of sequence or system. So, the purpose is interpreted as purely human factor inherent only in human being. Theres nothing for it but to apply the concept of purpose/goal not only to psychological activity of an individual, but to the concept of system, because the basic distinctive feature of any system is it designation for some purpose/goal. Any system is always intended for something, is purposeful and serves some definite purpose/goal, and the goal is set not only before the individual, but before each system as well, regardless of its complexity. Nevertheless, none of definitions of a system does practically contain the concept of purpose/goal, although it is the aim, but not the signs of action, emergence factor or something else, which is a system forming factor. There are no systems without goal/purpose, and to achieve this purpose the group of elements consolidates in a system and operates. Purposefulness is defined by a question What can this object do? The system is a complex of discretionary involved elements jointly contributing to the achievement of the predetermined benefit, which is assumed to be the core system forming factor. One can only facilitate the achievement of specific goal, while the predetermined benefits can only be the goal. The only thing to be clarified now is who or what determines the usefulness of the result. In other words, who or what sets the goal before the system? The entire theory of systems is built on the basis of four axioms and four laws which are deduced from the axioms: axiom #1: a system always has one consistent/invariable general goal/purpose (the principle of system purposefulness, predestination); axiom #2: the goal for the systems is set from the outside (the principle of goal setting for the systems); axiom #3: to achieve the goal the system should operate in a certain mode (the principle of systems performance) law #1: the law of conservation (the principle of consistency of systems performance for the conservation of the consistency of goal/ purpose), law #2: the law of cause-and-effect limitations (the principle of determinism of systems performance), law #3: the law of hierarchies of goals/purposes (the principle of breakdown of goal/purpose into sub-goals/sub-purposes), law #4: the law of hierarchies of systems (the principle of distribution of sub-goals/sub-purposes between subsystems and the principle of subordination of subsystems); axiom 4: the result of systems performance exists independently from the systems themselves (the principle of independence of the performance result). Axiom #1: the principle of purposefulness. At first it is necessary to determine what meaning we attach to the concept system, as far as at first sight there are at least two groups of objects: systems and non-systems. In which case the object presents a system? It is not likely that any object can be a system, although both systems and non-systems consist of a set of parts (components, elements, etc.). In some cases a heap of sand is a structure, but not a system, although it consists of a set of elements representing heterogeneity of density in space (grains of sand in conjunction with hollows). However, in other cases the same heap of sand can be a system. So, what is the difference then between the structure-system and the structure-non-system, since after all both do consist of elements? All objects can be divided into two big groups, if certain equal external influence is exerted upon them: those with consistent retaliatory actions and those with variable and unpredictable response action. Thus, if we change external influence we then again will get the same two groups, but their structure will change: other objects will now be characterized by the consistency of response actions under the influence of new factors, while those previously characterized by such constancy under the former influencing factors will have no such characteristics under the influence of new factors any more. Let us call the systems those objects consisting of a set of elements and characterized by the constancy/consistency of actions in response to certain external influences. Those not characterized by the constancy of response actions under the same influences may be called casual sets of elements with respect to these influences. Hence, the concept of system is relative depending on how the given group of elements reacts to the given certain external influence. The constancy and similarity of reaction of the interacting group of elements in respect of certain external influence is the criterion of system. The constancy of actions in response to certain external influence is the goal/purpose of the given system. Hence, the goal/purpose stipulates direction of the systems performance. Any systems differ in constancy of performance/actions and differ from each other in purposefulness (predestination for something concrete). There is no system in general, but there are always concrete systems intended for some specific goals/purposes. Any object of our World differs from another only in purpose, predetermination for something. Different systems have different goals/purposes and they determine distinction between the systems. Hence, the opposite conclusion may be drawn: if there any system exists, it means it has a goal/purpose. We do not always understand the goals/purposes of either systems, but they (goals/purposes) are always present in any systems. We cannot tell, for example, what for is the atom of hydrogen needed, but we can not deny that it is necessary for the creation of polymeric organic chains or, for example, for the formation of a molecule of water. Anyway, if we need to construct a water molecule, we need to take, besides the atom of oxygen, two atoms of hydrogen instead of carbon or any other element. The system may be such group of elements only in which the result of their general interaction differs from the results of separate actions of each of these elements. The result may differ both qualitatively and quantitatively. The mass of the heap of sand is more than the mass of a separate grain of sand (quantitative difference). The room which walls are built of bricks has a property to limit space volume which is not the case with separate bricks (qualitative difference). Any system is always predetermined for some purpose, but it always has one and the same purpose. Haemoglobin as a system is always intended for the transfer of oxygen only, a car is intended for transportation and the juice extractor for squeezing of juice from fruit. One can use the juice extractor made of iron to hammer in a nail, but it is not the juice extractor systems purpose. This constancy of purpose obliges any systems to always operate to achieve one and the same goal predetermined for them.

The principle of goal-setting. A car is intended for transportation, a calculator for calculations, a lantern for illumination, etc. But the goal of transportation is needed not for the car but for someone or something external with respect to it. The car only needs its ability to implement the function in order to achieve this goal. The goal is to meet the need of something external in something, and this system only implements the goal while serving this external something. Hence, the goal for a system is set from the outside, and the only thing required from the system is the ability to implement this goal. This external something is another system or systems, because the World is tamped only with systems. Goal-setting always excludes independent choice of the goal by the system. The goal can be set to the system as the order/command and directive. There is a difference between these concepts. The order/command is a rigid instruction, it requires execution of just IT with the preset accuracy and only IN THAT MANNER and not in any other way, i.e. the system is not given the right to choose actions for the achievement of the goal and all its actions are strictly defined. Directive is a milder concept, whereby the IT is set only the given or approximate accuracy, but the right to choose actions is given to the system itself. Directive can be set only to systems with well developed management unit/control block which can make choice of necessary actions by itself. None of the systems does possess free will and can set the goal before itself; it comes to it from the outside. But are there any systems which are self-sufficient and set the goals before themselves? For example, we, the people, are sort of able of setting goals before ourselves and carry them out. Well then, are we the example of independent systems? But it is not as simple as it may seem. There is a dualism (dual nature) of one and the same concept of goal: the goal as the task for some system and the goal as an aspiration (desire) of this system to execute the goal set before it: the Goal is a task representing the need of external operating system (super system) to achieve certain predetermined result; the Goal is an aspiration (desire) to achieve certain result of performance of the given system always equal to the preset result (preset by order or directive). The fundamental point is that one super system cannot set the goal before the system (subsystem) of other super system. It can set the goal only before this super system which becomes a subsystem in respect of the latter. We can set the goal before ourselves, but we always set the goal only when we are missing/lacking something, when we suffer. Suffering is an unachieved desire. Any physiological (hunger, thirst), aesthetic and other unachieved desires makes us suffer and suffering forces us to aspire to act until desires are satisfied. The depth of suffering is always equal to the intensity of desire. We want to eat and we suffer from hunger until we satisfy this desire. As soon as we take some food, the suffering ceases immediately. At that, the new desire arises according to Maslow pyramid. Desire is our goal-aspiration. When we realize our wish we achieve the objective/goal. If we achieve the objective we cease to act, because the goal is achieved and the wish disappears. If we have everything we can only think of, we will not set any goals before ourselves, because there is nothing to wish, since we have everything. Therefore, even a human being with all its complexity and developmental evolution cannot be absolutely independent of other systems (of external environment). Our goals-tasks are always set before us by the external environment and it incites our desire (goal-aspiration) which is dictated by shortage of something. We are free to choose our actions to achieve the goal, but it is at this point where we are limited by our possibilities. We do not set the goal-task, we set the goals-aspirations. Then if it is not us, can there be other systems which can set goals before themselves regardless of whatsoever? Perhaps, starting from any certain level of complication the systems can do it themselves? Such examples are unknown to us. For any however large and difficult system there might be another, even higher system found which will dictate the former its goals and conditions. Nature is integrated and almost put in (good) order. It is almost put in order, because at the level of quantum phenomena there is probably some uncertainty and unpredictability, i.e. unconformity of the phenomena to our knowledge of physical laws (for example, tunnel effects). It is this unpredictability which is the cause of contingencies and unpredictability. Contingency /stochasticity and purposefulness are mutually exclusive.

Principle of performance of action. Any system is intended for any well defined and concrete goal specific for it, and for this purpose it performs only specific (target-oriented) actions. Hence, the goal of a system is the aspiration to perform certain purposeful actions for the achievement of target-oriented (appropriate) result of action. The plane is designed for air transportation, but cannot float; for this purpose there is an amphibian aircraft. The result of aircraft performance is moving by air. This result of action is expectable and predictable. The constancy and predictability of functional performance is a distinctive feature of any systems living, natural, social, financial, technical, etc. Consequently, in order to achieve the goal any object of our World should function, make any purposeful actions, operations (in this case the purposeful, deliberate inaction is in some sense an action, too). Action is manifestation of some energy, activity, as well as force itself, the functioning of something; condition, process arising in response to some influence, stimulant/irritant, impression (for example, reaction in psychology, chemical reactions, nuclear reactions). The objects action is followed by the result of action (not always expected, but always logical and conditioned). The purpose of any system is the aspiration to yield appropriate (targeted) result of action. At that, the given object is the donor of the result of action. The result of action of donor system can be directed towards any other system which in this case will be the recipient (target) for the result of action. In this case the result of action of the donor system becomes the external influence for the recipient system. Interaction between the systems is carried out only through the results of action. In that way the chain of actions is built as follows: ... → (external influence) → result of action (external influence) →... The system produces single result of action for single external influence. No object operates in itself. It cannot decide on its own Here now I will start to operate because it has no freedom of will and it cannot set the goal before itself and produce the result of action on its own. It can only react (act) in response to certain external influence. Any actions of any objects are always their reaction to something. Any influence causes response/reaction. Lack of influence causes no reaction. Reaction can sometimes be delayed, therefore it may seem causeless. But if one digs and delves, it is always possible to find the cause, i.e. external influence. Cognition of the world only falls to our lot through the reactions of its elements. Reaction (from Latin re return and actio - action) is an action, condition, process arising in response to some influence, irritant/stimulant, impression (for example, reaction in psychology, chemical reactions, nuclear reactions). Consequently, the systems action in response to the external influence is the reaction of the system. When the system has worked (responded) and the required result of action has been received, it means that it has already achieved (quenched) the goal and after that it has no any more goal to aspire to. Reaction is always secondary and occurs only and only following the external influence exerted upon the element. Reaction can sometimes occur after a long time following the external influence if, for example, the given element has been specially programmed for the delay. But it will surely occur, provided that the force of the external influence exceeds the threshold of the elements sensitivity to the external influence and that the element is capable to respond to the given influence in general. If the element is able of reacting to pressure above 1 atmosphere it will necessarily react if the pressure is in excess of 1 atmosphere. If the pressure is less than 1 atmosphere it will not react to the lower pressure. If it is influenced by temperature, humidity or electric induction, it will also not react, howsoever we try to persuade it, as it is only capable to react to pressure higher than 1 atmosphere. In no pressure case (no pressure above 1 atmosphere), it will never react. Since the result of the systems performance appears only following some external influence, it is always secondary, because the external influence is primary. External influence is the cause and the result of action is a consequence (function). It is obvious that donor systems can produce one or several results of action, while the recipient systems may only react to one or several external influences. But donor elements can interact with the recipient systems only in case of qualitatively homogeneous actions. If the recipient systems can react only to pressure, then the systems able of interacting with them may be those which result of action is pressure, but not temperature, electric current or something else. Interaction between donor systems and recipient systems is only possible in case of qualitative uniformity (homoreactivity, the principle of homogeneous interactivity). We can listen to the performance of the musician on a stage first of all because we have ears. The earthworm is not able to understand our delight from the performance of the musician at least for the reason that it has no ears, it cannot perceive a sound and it has no idea about a sound even if (hypothetically) it could have an intelligence equal to ours. The result of action of the recipient element can be both homogeneous (homoreactive) and non-homogeneous, unequal in terms of quality of action (heteroreactive) of external influence in respect of it. For example, the element reacts to pressure, and its result of action can be either pressure or temperature, or frequency, or a stream/flow of something, or the number of inhabitants of the forest (apartment, city, country) etc. Hence, the reaction of an element to the external influence can be both homoreactive and heteroreactive. In the first case the elements are the action transmitters, in the second case they are converters of quality of action. If the result of the systems actions completely corresponds to the implementation of goal, it speaks of the sufficiency of this system (the given group of interacting elements) for the given purpose. If not, the given group of elements mismatches the given goal/purpose and/or is insufficient, or is not the proper system for the achievement of a degree of quality and quantity of the preset goal. Therefore, any existing object can be characterized by answering the basic question: What can the given object do? This question characterizes the concept of the result of action of an object which in turn consists of two subquestions: What action can be done by given object? (the quality of result of action); How much of such action can be done by the given object? (the quantity of result of action). These two subquestions characterize the aspiration of a system to implement the goal. And the goal-setting may be characterized by answering another question: What should the given object do? which also consists of two subquestions: what action should the given object do? (the quality of the result of action); how much of such action should the given object do? (the quantity of the result of action). These last two subquestions are the ones that determine the goal as a task (the order/command, the instruction) for the given object or group of objects, and the system is being sought or built to achieve this goal. The closer the correspondence between what should and what can be done by the given object, the closer the given object is to the ideal system. The real result of action of the system should correspond to preset (expected) result. This correspondence is the basic characteristic of any system. Wide variety of systems may be built of a very limited number of elements. All the diverse material physical universe is built of various combinations of protons, electrons and neutrons and these combinations are the systems with specific goals/purposes. We do not know the taste of protons, neutrons and electrons, but we do know the taste of sugar which molecular atoms are composed of these elements. Same elements are the constructional material of both the human being and a stone. The result of the action of pendulum would be just swaying, but not secretion of hormones, transmission of impulse, etc. Hence, its goal/purpose and result of action is nothing more but only swaying at constant frequency. The symphonic orchestra can only play pieces of music, but not build, fight or merchandize, etc. Generator of random numbers should generate only random numbers. If all of a sudden it starts generate series of interdependent numbers, it will cease to be the generator of random numbers. Real and ideal systems differ from each other in that the former always have additional properties determined by the imperfection of real systems. Massive golden royal seal, for example, may be used to crack nuts just as well as by means of a hammer or a plain stone, but it is intended for other purpose. Therefore, as it has already been noted above, the concept of system is relative, but not absolute, depending on correspondence between what should and what can be done by the given object. If the object can implement the goal set before it, it is the system intended for the achievement of this goal. If it cannot do so, it is not the system for the given goal, but can be a system intended for other goals. It does not mater for the achievement of the goal what the system consists of, but what is important is what it can do. In any case the possibility to implement the goal determines the system. Therefore, the system is determined not by the structure of its elements, but by the extent of precision/accuracy of implementation of the expected result. What is important is the result of action, rather than the way it was achieved. Absolutely different elements may be used to build the systems for the solution of identical problems (goals). The sum of US$200 in the form of US$1 value coins each and the check for the same amount can perform the same action (may be used to make the same purchase), although they consist of different elements. In one case it is metal disks with the engraved signs, while in other case it is a piece of a paper with the text drawn on it. Hence, they are systems named money with identical purposes, provided that they may be used for purchase and sale without taking into account, for example, conveniences of carrying them over or a guarantee against theft. But the

"The manager as a teacher: selected aspects of stimulation of scientsfsc thinking". . , , 100% !
- »

: 818

" ":

Studies lexical material of English


The socialist workers party 1951-1979




Modal verbs