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As is generally known, science and education are one of strategic resources of the state, one of fundamental forms of culture of civilization, as well as competitive advantage of every individual. Global discoveries of modern life occur both deep in and at the junction of various sciences, and at that, often and often the more unusual the combination of sciences is, the wider range of scientific prospects is promised by non-standard conspectus of their combination, for example, biology and electronics, philology and mathematics, etc. Discoveries in one area stimulate development in other spheres of science as well. Scientific development of a society is a programmable and predictable phenomenon, and this issue is specifically dealt by the futurology science. Modern techniques of pedagogy, psychology, medicine †and other sciences do not only enable orientation and informational УpumpingФ of human brain, but also the formation of an individualТs character optimally suitable for the role of scientist. Unlike a computer, any human being has intuition - the element of thinking so far in no way replaceable (although some developments in this sphere are coming into being). Narrow specialization of scientists tapers the scope of their activity and is explained by an immense volume of information required for modern scientist. This problem is being solved (partially though) through a variety of actions Ц intellectualization of computers, УsimplificationФ of information (its reduction to short, but data intensive/high-capacity formulas and formulations), application of psycho-technologies. Psycho-technologies (mnemonics, educational games, hypnopaedia, (auto-) hypnosis, propaganda and advertising methods and techniques, including technotronic and pharmacological /nootropic preparations/, etc.) make it possible to solve the following problem. A Уblack boxФ concept applied in computer science designates a system into which the chaotic information is entered, and in a little while a version, hypothesis or theory is produced. A human being represents (with some reservations though) such a system. Information processing occurs consciously and subconsciously based on certain rules (program). The more information processing rules we enter, the fewer number of degrees of freedom remains in the system. Hence, it is desirable to enter the very basic axioms. Differences in programs (even mere default - but without lack of key information) form differences in opinions and argumentation. The longer the period of program operation is (including based on internal biological clock), the greater the effect one can expect. The provability of success is directly proportional to the quantity of samples/tests, hence it is desirable to build in basic mechanisms of scientific thinking at the earliest age possible in a maximum wide audience and to stimulate their active work, and in certain time intervals make evaluation and update of УprogramsФ of thinking. УComprehension by an individual of new skills occurs only step-wise. Transition between two following mental conditions takes place: УIТll never understand how this can be done and IТll never be able to do itФ and Уit is so obvious that I canТt understand what needs to be explained hereФ. Except for early childhood, the leaps of this kind occur when mastering reading and mastering writing, mastering all standard extensions of set of numbers (fractional, negative, rational numbers, but not complex numbers), when mastering the concept of infinitesimal value and its consequences (the limits), differentiation, when mastering integration, complex of specific abilities forming the phenomenon †of information generating (in other words, in the course of transition from studying science or art to purposeful/conscious professional† creative work). We hereby note that at any of these stages, for the reasons not quite clear to us, the leap may not occur. It means that certain ability has not turned into a stage of subconscious professional application and cannot be used randomly by an individual for the solution of problems he/she faces. At that, the required algorithm may be well known. In other words, an individual knows letters. He/she knows how to write them. He/she can form words from them. He/she can write a sentence. But! This work would require all his/her intellectual and mainly physical effort. †For the reason that all resources of the brain are spent for the process of writing, errors are inevitable. It is obvious that despite formal literacy (the presence of knowledge of algorithm) an individual cannot be engaged in any activity for which the ability to write is one of the basic or at least essential skills. Similar state of an individual is widely known in modern pedagogy and is called functional illiteracy. Similarly, one can speak of functional inability to integrate (quite a frequent reason for the exclusion of the 1st and 2nd grade students from physical and mathematical departments). Curiously enough, at higher levels the leap does not occur so often, to the extent that it is even considered normal. The formula: УAn excellent student, but failed to make proper choice of vocation. Well, heТs not a physicist by virtue of thinking Ц well, thatТs the wayФ (the leap allowing to mechanically employ specific style of thinking / physical in this case / did not occur). As to automatic creativity, these concepts in general are considered disconnected, and individuals for whom the process of creation of new essentialities in science and culture is the ordinary professional work not demanding special strain of effort are named geniuses. However, a child sick with functional illiteracy would perceive his peer who has mastered writing to the extent of being able of doing it without looking into a writing-book, a genius, too! Thus, we arrive at the conclusion that creativity at the level of simple genius is basically accessible to everyone. Modern education translates to pupilsТ knowledge (of which, according to research, 90 % is being well and almost immediately forgotten) and very limited number of skills which would in a step-wise manner move the individual to the following stage of intellectual or physical development. One should know right well that endless school classes and home work, exhausting sports trainings are no more than eternal Уthrowing of cubeФ in the hope that lucky number will come out Ц in the hope of a УclickФ. And the УclickФ may occur at the first dash. It may never occur as well. Accordingly, the philosophy Уrepetition is the mother of learningФ in effect adds up to a Уtrial-and-error methodФ which has been for a long time and fairly branded as such by TRIZists (the followers of Inventive Problems Solution Theory). As a matter of fact, the uneven nature of transition between УinФ-and УoutФ- states at the moment of УclickФ suggests that it is a question of structural transformation of mentality. That is, УclickФ requires destruction of a structure (a pattern of thought, a picture of the world) and creation of another one in which a new skill is included УhardwarilyФ to be used automatically. Restrictions stimulate internal activity. It is proven that creative task УDraw somethingФ without setting pre-determined conditions with restrictions is carried out less productively and less originally than the task: УDraw an unusual animal with a pencil during 30 minutesФ (Sergey Pereslegin). Required personal qualities Ц traits of character /temperamental attributes/ may be divided into four conventional groups: necessary, desirable, undesirable and inadmissible. Knowledge can be divided into two groups: means and ways of information processing (including philosophy, logic, mathematics, etc.), the so-called meta-skills or meta-knowledge/ which are universal and applicable in any field of activity), and the subject (subjects) matter per se. From the view point of methodology all methods of scientific knowledge can be divided into five basic groups: 1. Philosophical methods. These include dialectics and metaphysics. 2. General scientific (general logical) approaches and research methods - analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, abstraction, generalization, idealization, analogy, modeling, stochastic-statistical methods, systemic approach, etc. 3. Special-scientific methods: totality of techniques, research methods used in one or another field of knowledge. 4. Disciplinary methods, i.e. a set of methods applied in one or another discipline. 5. Methods of interdisciplinary research Ц a set of several synthetic, integrative methods generated mainly at the cross-disciplinary junction of branches of science. Scientific cognition is characterized by two levels - empirical and theoretical. Characteristic feature of empirical knowledge is the fact fixing activity.† Theoretical cognition is substantial cognition /knowledge per se/ which occurs at the level of high order abstraction. There two ways to attempt to solve a problem:† search for the necessary information or investigate it independently by means of observation, experiments and theoretical thinking. Observation and experiment are the most important methods of research in the process of scientific cognition. It is often said that theory is generalization of practice, experience or observations. Scientific generalizations often imply the use of a number of special logical methods: 1) Universalization /globbing/ method which consists in that general points/aspects/ and properties observed in the limited set of experiments hold true for all possible cases; 2) Idealization method consisting in that conditions are specified at which processes described in laws occur in their pure form, i.e. the way they cannot occur in reality; 3) Conceptualization method consisting in that concepts borrowed from other theories are entered into the formulation of laws, these concepts acquiring acceptably /accurate/ exact meaning and significance. Major methods of scientific cognition are: 1) Method of ascending from abstract to concrete. The process of scientific cognition is always connected with transition from extremely simple concepts to more difficult concrete ones. 2) Method of modeling and principle of system. It consists in that the object inaccessible to direct research is replaced with its model. A model possesses similarity with the object in terms of its properties that are of interest for the researcher. 3) Experiment and observation. In the course of experiment the observer would isolate artificially a number of characteristics of the investigated system and examine their dependence on other parameters. It is necessary to take into account that about 10 - 25 % of scientific information is proven outdated annually and in the near future this figure can reach 70%; according to other sources, the volume of information doubles every 5 years. It means that the system of education/teaching and Уnon-stopФ retraining applied in some cases will become a universal and mandatory phenomenon, whereas the boundary between necessary and desirable knowledge will become more vague and conventional. In modern conditions active and purposeful studying of someoneТs future sphere (spheres) of activity should start 4-5 years prior to entering the university. Considerable development will be seen in УpreventiveФ (pre-emptive, anticipatory) education taking into account prospects of development of science for 3-5-10 years from no on. Masterful knowledge of methods of scientific-analytical and creative thinking is becoming the same social standard and a sign of affiliation to elite social groups as, for example, the presence of higher education diploma. The law of inverse proportionality of controllability and the ability to development says the more the system is controllable, the less it is capable of development. Controllable development may only be overtaking/catching up/. Now, a few thoughts about errors in the course of training.† Traditional approach tends to consider an error as the lack of learning, assiduity, attention, diligence, etc. As a result the one to blame is a trainee. Error should be perceived as a constructive element in the system of heuristic training. An educational institution is just the institute where the person should make mistakes under the guidance of a teacher. An important element of cognitive system is professional terminology. The lack of knowledge of terms would not release anyone from the need to understand Е Each term contains the concentrated mass of nuances and details distinguishing the scientific vision of the matter in question from the ordinary, unscientific understandingЕ It should be mentioned that the process of teaching/educating/ is a stress which has pluses and minuses, whereas the process of studying is a much smaller stress. One of the main tasks in terms of (self-) education may be the formation of active desire (internal requirement) to study and be engaged in (self-) education with independent search of appropriate means and possibilities. Special consideration should be given to teaching/training means and methods, i.e. what is comprehensible to one group of trainees may be useless for others. Major differentiation would be seen in age categories plus individual features. Training games are quite a universal tool used for a wide range of subjects and development of practical skills, since the game reflects the traineeТs behavior in reality. It is a system that provides an immediate feedback. Instead of listening to a lecture the trainee is given the individual lesson adapted for his/her needs. Game is modeling of reality and method of influencing it by the trainee. Some minuses of game include conventionality and schematic nature of what is going on and the development of the traineeТs behavioral and cogitative stereotypes. Major strategic consequences of wide spread of scientific thinking skills may include systemic (including quantitative - qualitative) changes in the system of science, education and industry, sharp increase of labor force mobility (both УwhiteФ and Уblue collarФ) and possible global social-economic and social-political changes.
Part 1. Meta-skills:
Pass preliminary test by means of KettelТs 16-factor questionnaire (form C), test your IQ (Intelligence Quotient) using AizencТs test. Undergo testing for operative and long-term memory, attention distribution, noise immunity and will. Plan the development of these qualities in your character.
Methods of work with the text
(W. Tuckman УEducational Psychology. From Theory to ApplicationФ. Florida. State University. 1992):
1. Look through the text before reading it in detail to determine what it is about.
2. Focus your attention on the most significant places (semantic nodes) in the text.
3. Keep short record (summary/synopsis) of the most significant facts.
4. Keep close watch of understanding of what you read. If something appears not quite understood, re-read the paragraph once again.
5. Check up and generalize (analyze) what you have read in respect to the purpose of your reading.
6. Check up the correctness of understanding of separate words and thoughts in reference literature.
7. Quickly resume the work (reading) if you have been interrupted.
Training of fast reading Ц УFast Reader 32Ф Program. Download the program: http://www.nodevice.ru/soft/windows/education/trenning/5072.html http://kornjakov.ru/index.htm, http://www.freesoft.ru/? id=670591 - for handheld computer. Plan 2-week Уresult-orientedФ trainings - your current maximum is + 50%.
Methods of critical and creative thinking
1. Analytical thinking (information analysis, selection of necessary facts, comparison, collation of facts, phenomena). Useful questions in this connection are Уwho?Ф, Уwhat?Ф, Уwhere?Ф, Уwhen?Ф, Уwhy?Ф, Уwhere?Ф, Уwhat for?Ф, Уhow?Ф, Уhow many/much?Ф, Уwhat?Ф(Уwhich?Ф) to be asked in the most unusual combinations, while trying to find (to suppose) all options of answers.
2. Associative thinking (determination of associations with the previously studied familiar facts, phenomena, determination of associations with new qualities of a subject, phenomenon, etc.).
3. Independence of thinking (the absence of dependence on authorities and/or stereotypes, prejudices, etc.).
4. Logic thinking (the ability to build the logic of provability of the decision made, the internal logic of a problem being solved, the logic of sequence of actions undertaken for the solution of the problem, etc.).
5. Systemic thinking (the ability to consider the object, the problem in question within the integrity of their ties/relations and characteristics).
1. Ability of mental experimentation, spatial imagination.
2. Ability of independent transfer of knowledge for the decision of new problem, task, search of new decisions.
3. Combinatory abilities (the ability to combine the earlier known methods, ways of task/problem solution in a new combined, complex way Ц the morphological analysis).
4. Prognostic abilities (the ability to anticipate possible consequences of the decisions made, ability to establish cause-and-effect relations).
5. Heuristic way of thinking, intuitive inspiration, insight. The above stated abilities can be supplemented by specific abilities to work with information, for which purpose it is important to be able to select required (for specific goals) information from various sources to analyze it, systematize and generalize the data obtained in accordance with the cognitive task set forth, the ability to reveal problems in various fields of knowledge, in the surrounding reality, to make grounded hypotheses for their solution. It is also necessary to be able to put experiments (not only mental, but also natural), make well-reasoned conclusions, build the system of proofs, to be able to process statistically the data obtained from test and experimental checks, to be able to generate new ideas, possible ways of search of decisions, registration of results, to be able to work in the collective, while solving cognitive, creative tasks in cooperation with others, at that playing different social roles, as well as to be master of art and culture of communication.
Research and search methods of information processing:
1. Independent search and selection of information on specific problem.
2. Information analysis for the purpose of selection of facts, data necessary for the description of the object of study, its characteristics, qualities; for selection of† facts conducive to the provability† and/or refutation of the vision of the task/problem solution; building of facts, data analyzed in the logical sequence of proofs, etc.
3. Definition, vision of problems that need examination and solution.
4. Making hypotheses with definition of ways to check (solve) them.
5. Determination of methods, ways of solution of the investigated problem, stages of its solution by an individual or joint, group effort.
6. Registration of results of research or search activity.
7. Argumentation of the results achieved.
8. Projecting the occurrence of new problems in the given area of knowledge, practical activities.
Universal plan of scientific management (SM)
1. Statement of an overall goal (task) - minimum, optimum and maximum.
2. Setting of intermediate goals (tasks), their prioritization, time-frames of implementation.
3. Mechanisms (methods, schemes) of their achievement.
4. Required logistical, informational and financial support.
5. Personnel (including statement of problem before each employee following detailed instructional advice and determination of implementation time-frames).
6. Ways and means of control, possible failures and disturbances, methods, time-frames, personnel, materials, equipment, information and finance to rectify the latter.
7. Task adjustment in case of changes of situation, adaptation of the work performed (at all stages) to a new problem.
TRIZ Ц Inventive Problems Solution Theory (IPST)
Algorithm of activity:
1. A. Set a task.† B. Imagine ideal result (is there a problem at all?). C. What prevents from the achievement of a goal (find contradiction), why does it prevent from its achievement (reveal cause-and-effect relations). D. On what conditions prevention will not occur?
2. A. Required (possible) internal changes (the sizes: larger, smaller, longer, shorter, thicker, thinner, deeper, shallower, vertically, horizontally, sloping, in parallel, in ledges, in layers/slices, transpose/rearrange, †crosswise, convergence, †to surround, to mix/stir, borders; the quantity: more, less, proportions, to divide, attach, add, remove; form: usual, unusual, rounded, straight, jags, unevenness, rough, equal, even/smooth, damage proof, delays, accidents, УfoolproofingФ and protection from larceny, to add; movement: to accelerate, slow down, stir up/revive/brighten up, stop, direction, deviation, pulling, pushing away, to block, lift, lower/pull down, rotate, fluctuate, arouse; condition: hot, cooler, firmer, softer, opened, closed, pre-assembled, disposable, combined, divided, hardening, liquid, gaseous, powder-like, wearability, to grease, moist, dry, isolated, gelatinous, plasmic, elastic, resists, superposes/matches). B. Division of an object (and/or subject) into independent parts: a. Segregation of weak (including potentially weak) part (parts). b. Segregation of required and sufficient part (parts). c. Segregation of identical (including duplicating, similar) parts (including in other systems). d. Division into parts with different functions. C. External changes. D. Changes in the adjacent objects. a. Establishment of links between the previously independent objects performing one work (including a network). b. Removal of objects because of transfer of their functions to other objects. c. Increase in the number of objects at the expense of the reverse side of the area. E. Measurement of time: faster, more slowly, longer, eternal, single-step, cyclic, time-wise marked, update, variable. F. Ascertainment of ties with other fields of knowledge (how is this contradiction solved there? what can be borrowed from there at all?). Prototypes in nature. G. Read the dictionaries for verbal associations (including non-standard). H. In case of failure revert to the initial problem to expand its situation/formulation.
3. A. Introduce necessary changes in the object (work). B. Introduce changes in other objects connected with the given one. C. Introduce changes in methods and expand the sphere of use of the object. D. Ask questions Уhow can we achieve the same result without using this product (using it partially) or without doing this work (doing it partially)?Ф, Уhow can we make the product (work) easier, more durable, safer, cheaper, in a more accelerated manner, pleasant, useful, universal, convenient, УfriendlyФ, more ergonomic, harmless, pure, reliable, effective, attractive and bright, portable, valuable, status ranking, etc. E. Conduct preliminary tests, finish off, if necessary. Develop IGM (income generation mechanism). F. Check the applicability of the solution(s) found in respect of other problems. G. Take out a patent for the idea. See also: www.triz-journal.com, http://www.altshuller.ru/
Concepts, substance and laws of dialectics
1) The world (the being, reality) exists objectively, i.e. irrespective of the will and conscience of a human being. 2) The world has not been created by anybody and cannot be destroyed by anybody. It exists and develops in accordance with natural laws. There are no supernatural forces in it. 3) The world is unique and there are no Уextra-mundaneФ spheres and phenomena in it (standing Уabove the worldФ or Уbeyond the worldФ) that are absolutely abjoint from each other. Diverse objects and the phenomena of the reality represent various kinds of moving matter and energy. 4) The world is coherent and is in eternal, continuous movement, development. Objects of the reality interact with each other, influence upon each other. In the process of development qualitative changes in objects, including natural transition from the lowest forms to the higher, take place. 5) Natural development of a matter through a number of natural steps (the inorganic/inanimate nature/abiocoen/ Ц life Ц society) has led to the origin of human being, intellect, conscience. The crucial role in the segregation of human being from animality and the formation of its conscience was played by labor, its social nature, transition of the human beingТs animal ancestors to regular production and application of instruments of labor. 6) Society being the higher step of development of substance includes all lowest forms and levels (mechanical, physical, chemical, biological) on the basis of which it has arisen, but is not reduced to them only. It exists and develops on the basis of social laws which qualitatively differ from the laws of the lowest forms. The paramount law of social development is the determinant role of production in the life of the society. Mode of production of material life conditions social, political and spiritual processes of life in general. 7) The world is knowable. Human knowledge is unlimited by nature, but is limited historically at each stage of its development and for each separate individual. The criterion for the verity of thinking and cognition is public practice. In recent years the need arose for the formation of higher form of dialectic-materialistic outlook - Уspiritual materialismФ. Spiritual materialism extends the line of classical materialism in terms of recognition of objective character of existence, its cognoscibility, natural evolution of substance from the lowest to the higher forms, exclusion of notions of supernatural from scientific beliefs/notions, etc. At the same time, spiritual materialism overcomes absolutization of superiority of material over the spiritual, contraposition and discontinuity of these fundamentals inherent in the former forms of materialism, and directs towards the revelation of their unity, complex interrelation, interpenetration, definite fixation of relations in which the material and spiritual determine each other in the process of functioning and development of objects. Three main laws of dialectics are: the law of transition from quantity to quality, the law of unity and conflict of opposites and the law of negation of negation. There is more to it than these three major laws in dialectics. Abscque hoc, there are a number of other dialectic laws concretizing and supplementing organic laws of dialectics expressed in categories Уsubstance and phenomenonФ, Уcontent and formФ, Уcontingency and necessityФ, Уcause and effectФ, Уpossibility and realityФ, Уindividual, special and generalФ, the dialectic triad: thesis, antithesis and synthesis. Categories and laws of dialectics exist within a certain system in which the substance/essence of dialectics proper is expressed.
Analysis of the decision-making methods without use of numerical values of probability (exemplificative of the investment projects).
In practice situations are often found when it is difficult enough to estimate the value of probability of an event. In such cases methods are often times applied which do not involve using numerical values of probabilities: maximax Ц maximization of the maximum result of the project; maximin Ц maximization of the minimum result of the project; minimax Ц minimization of maximum losses; compromise Ц GurvitzТs criterion: weighing of minimum and maximum results of the project. For decision-making on realization of investment projects a matrix is built. Matrix columns correspond to the possible states of nature, i.e. situations which are beyond of control of the head of an enterprise. Lines of the matrix correspond to possible alternatives of realization of the investment project Ц strategies which may be chosen by the director. The matrix cells specify the results of each strategy for each state of nature. Example: The enterprise analyzes the investment civil-engineering design of a line for the production of new kind of product. There are two possibilities: the construction of a high power capacity line or to construct low power line. Net present value of the project depends on the demand for production, whereas the exact volume of demand is unknown, however, it is known that there are three basic possibilities: absence of demand, average demand and great demand. The matrix cells (see table 1) show net present value of the project at a certain state of nature, provided that the enterprise will choose the appropriate strategy. The last line shows what strategy is optimum in each state of nature. The maximax decision would be to construct a high power capacity line: the maximum net present value will thus be 300 which correspond to the great demand situation. The maximum criterion reflects the position of the enterprise director Ц the optimist ignoring possible losses. The maximin decision, i.e. to construct a low power line: the minimum result of this strategy is the loss of 100 (which is better than possible loss of 200 in case of construction of a high power capacity line). The maximin criterion reflects the position of the director who is in no way disposed towards taking risk and is notable for his/her extreme pessimism. This criterion is quite useful in situations where risk is especially high (for example when the existence of an enterprise depends on the results of the investment project). Threat is determined by two components: possibilities and intention of the contestant.
Table 1. Example of construction of the matrix of strategy and states of nature for the investment project.
|Strategy |||State of nature : absence of demand |||State of nature : medium demand |||State of nature : great
|Construct a low power line |||100 |||150 |||150 |
|Construct a high power capacity line |||200 |||200 |||300 |
|Optimum strategy for the given state of nature |||Construct a low power line |||Construct a high power capacity line |||Construct a high
power capacity line |
To apply the minimax criterion let us construct Уa matrix of regretsФ (see table 2). The cells of this matrix show the extent/value of УregretФ, i.e† the difference between actual and the best results which could have been achieved by the enterprise at the given state of nature. УRegretФ shows what is being lost by the enterprise as a result of making wrong decision. The minimax decision corresponds to the strategy, whereby the maximum regret is minimal. In our case of low power line maximum regret makes 150 (in great demand situation) and for a high power capacity line Ц 100 (in the absence of demand). As 100 <150, the minimax decision would be to construct a high power capacity line. The minimax criterion is oriented not so much towards actual as possible damages or loss of profit.
Example of structure of the Уmatrix of regretsФ for minimax criterion