Дипломная работа на тему "Grammar Games - Motivation in Teaching English"
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1.1 General characteristics of the work
1.2 The role of games on language lessons
II. Main Part
Chapter 1. Theory part
2.1.1 The advantages of using games
2.1.2 The adequacy in using games
2.1.3 Learning grammar through games
Chapter 2. Practice part
2.2.1 Games with prepositions
2.2.2 Conditionals and Wishes
2.2.3 Examples of worksheets
1.1 General characteristics of the work
The theme of my qualification work sounds as following: “Grammar Games - Motivation in Teaching English” This qualification work can be characterized by the following:
2. Actuality of the theme.
In recent years language researchers and practitioners have shifted their focus from developing individual linguistic skills to the use of language to achieve the speaker's objectives. This new area of focus, known as communicative competence, leads language teachers to seek task-oriented activities that engage their students in creative language use. Games, which are task-based and have a purpose beyond the production of correct speech, serve as excellent communicative activities. On the surface, the aim of all language games is for students to "use the language"; however, during game play learners also use the target language to persuade and negotiate their way to desired results. This process involves the productive and receptive skills simultaneously. Standing on such ground, I considered the theme of the work actual enough to make investigation.
3. The tasks and aims of the work.
1. The first task of my work is to describe the role of games on language lessons.
2. The second task is to describe views of different linguists on the problem of using games.
3. The last task is to describe various types of grammar games.
4. The novelty of the work.
I consider that the novelty of the work is concluded in new materials of the linguists, which were published in the Internet. The novelty of my work is concluded in the fact, that I had worked out some grammar games, which I had approbated on English language lessons during my pedagogical practice.
5. Practical significance of the work.
In my opinion the practical significance of my work is hard to be overvalued. This work reflects modern trends in linguistics and I hope it would serve as a good manual for those who wants to master modern English language. Also this work can be used by teachers of English language for teaching English grammar.
6. Ways of scientific investigation used within the work.
The main methods for compiling our work are the method of comparative analysis and the method of statistical research.
7. Fields of amplification.
The present work might find a good way of implying in the following spheres:
1. In High Schools and scientific circles of linguistic kind it can be successfully used by teachers and philologists as modern material for writing research works dealing with using of grammar games.
2. It can be used by teachers of schools, lyceums and colleges by teachers of English as a practical manual for teaching English grammar.
3. It can be useful for everyone who wants to enlarge his/her knowledge in English.
8. Linguists worked with the theme.
As the base for my qualification work I used the works of Abbott G., Azar B. Sh., Horwitz E.K., Lee Su Kim and others.
9. Content of the work.
The present qualification work consists of four parts: introduction, the main part, conclusion and bibliography. Within the introduction part, which includes two items I gave the brief description of our qualification work (the first item), where I described its actuality, practical significance, and fields of amplification, and described the role of games on language lessons. The main part of my qualification work includes several items. There I discussed such problems as adequacy in using games and their advantages. In the second chapter (practice part) of main part described different types of grammar games, and included worksheets, which are needed for playing these games. In the conclusion to my qualification work I tried to draw some results from the scientific investigations made within the main part of my qualification work. In bibliography part I mentioned more than 20 sources of which were used while compiling the present work. It includes linguistic books and articles dealing with the theme, a number of used dictionaries and encyclopedias and also some internet sources.
1.2 The role of games on language lessons
Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have the opportunity to use language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners' attention is on the message, not on the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win. This eases the fear of negative evaluation, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language in front of other people. In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech fluency is generated--thus communicative competence is achieved.
Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful use of language (Prasad 2003). In other words, these activities create a meaningful context for language use. The competitive ambiance also makes learners concentrate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious acquisition of inputs. Most students who have experienced game-oriented activities hold positive attitudes towards them (Uberman 1998). An action research conducted by Huyen and Nga (2003), students said that they liked the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness, and the motivation that games brought to the classroom. On the effectiveness of games, teachers in Huyen & Nga's (2003)reported that action research reported that their students seem to learn more quickly and retain the learned materials better in a stress-free and comfortable environment.
The benefits of using games in language-learning can be summed up in nine points.
Games: are learner centered.
1. promote communicative competence.
2. create a meaningful context for language use.
3. increase learning motivation.
4. reduce learning anxiety.
5. integrate various linguistic skills.
6. encourage creative and spontaneous use of language.
7. construct a cooperative learning environment.
8. foster participatory attitudes of the students.
II. Main Part
Chapter 1. Theory part
2.1.1 The advantages of using games
Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas". In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.
Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems.
There are many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student's experience.
Another factor influencing the choice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Many games have a time limit, but the teacher can either allocate more or less time depending on the students' level, the number of people in a group, or the knowledge of the rules of a game etc.
Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do". Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. At different stages of the lesson, the teacher's aims connected with a game may vary:
Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency. However, can they be more successful for presentation and revision than other techniques? The following part of this article is an attempt at finding the answer to this question.
2.1.2 The adequacy in using games
In this paragraph we would like to reflect how modern teachers evaluate the adequacy in using games when teaching English language
Famous British teacher and educator Andrew Wright in his books' Language learning is hard work ... Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'
Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.''
The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.
If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term!'
Another distinguished scholar, Aydan Ersoz, of USA noted them following:
Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.'
Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.'
In Korea a noted teacher Lee Su Kim distinguished games as follows:
There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games.'
There are many advantages of using games in the classroom:
1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class.
2. They are motivating and challenging.
3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaningful context for language use.'
A great Polish educator the opinions of whom we mentioned within one of our chapters said,
Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms (1979:2). He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato 1988:147). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen 1994:118). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas" (1988:147). In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus 1994:218). S. M. Silvers says many teachers are enthusiastic about using games as "a teaching device," yet they often perceive games as mere time-fillers, "a break from the monotony of drilling" or frivolous activities. He also claims that many teachers often overlook the fact that in a relaxed atmosphere, real learning takes place, and students use the language they have been exposed to and have practiced earlier (1982:29). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future (1994:6).'
Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times seem overwhelming.'
When to Use Games
Ms. Uberman noted that 'Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do" (1979:3). Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.'
'Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.'
Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'
'Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.'
'In conclusion, learning vocabulary through games is one effective and interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms. The results of this research suggest that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons, thus leading toward the goal of improving learners' communicative competence.'
Why Use Games in Class Time?
Ø Games are fun and children like to play them. Through games children experiment, discover, and interact with their environment. (Lewis, 1999)
Ø Games add variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing a plausible incentive to use the target language. For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivational factor. Games can provide this stimulus. (Lewis, 1999)
The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children. It brings the target language to life. (Lewis, 1999)
Ø The game makes the reasons for speaking plausible even to reluctant children. (Lewis, 1999)
Ø Through playing games, students can learn English the way children learn their mother tongue without being aware they are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot.
Ø Even shy students can participate positively.
Ø How to Choose Games (Tyson, 2000)
Ø A game must be more than just fun.
Ø A game should involve "friendly" competition.
Ø A game should keep all of the students involved and interested.
Ø A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language itself.
Ø A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material.
One more scholar, M. Martha Lengeling said the following:
'In an effort to supplement lesson plans in the ESL classroom, teachers often turn to games. The justification for using games in the classroom has been well demonstrated as benefiting students in a variety of ways. These benefits range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more co-operative group dynamics.'
General Benefits of Games
- lowers affective filter
- encourages creative and spontaneous use of language
- promotes communicative competence
- reviews and extends
- focuses on grammar communicatively
- student centered
- teacher acts only as facilitator
- builds class cohesion
- fosters whole class participation
- promotes healthy competition
- easily adjusted for age, level, and interests
- utilizes all four skills
- requires minimum preparation after development
So language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.
Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.
2.1.3. Learning grammar through games
The collection of word games is a valuable resource for the teacher of young through adult learners of English as a second or foreign language. Focusing primarily on language development through the use of high frequency vocabulary and structures, they reinforce classroom lessons and provide additional spelling, conversation, listening and speaking practice.
The most instructive language learning games are those that emphasize specific structures. They do not only practice the basic pattern but also do so in a pleasant, easy way that allows the students to forget they are drilling grammar and concentrate on having fun. The following games are concerned with Yes/No questions, Wh-questions, tag questions, comparative and superlative, adverbs, modals, demonstratives, etc.
Most learners somehow accept that the sounds of a foreign language are going to be different from those of their mother tongue. What is more difficult to accept is that the grammar of the new language is also spectacularly different from the way the mother tongue works. At a subconscious, semiconscious and conscious level it is very hard to want to switch to “to be” (‘I’m 23’, ‘I’m hungry’, ‘and I’m cold’) if it is “have” in Italian.
Grammar is perhaps so serious and central in learning another language that all ways should be searched for which will focus student energy on the task of mastering and internalizing it. One way of focusing this energy is through the release offered by games. Teenagers are delighted to be asked to do something that feels like an out-class activity and in which they control what is going on in the classroom – they become the subjects, while for a lot of the 15,000 hours they spend in schools they are the objects of teaching. The point is that fun generates energy for the achievement of the serious goal.
Where exactly do such games fit into a teaching programme? Grammar games can be used in three ways:
· diagnostically before presenting a given structure area to find out how much knowledge of the area is already disjointedly present in the group;
· after a grammar presentation to see how much the group have grasped;
· as revision of a grammar area.
One should not use grammar games as a Friday afternoon ‘reward’ activity. Using them as a central part of the students’ learning process would be a better idea. Thus, each game is proposed for a given level ranging from beginner to advanced. This refers simply to the grammar content of that particular game. But, as it has been already mentioned above, a lot of activities can be adapted to different classes with different grammar components. By changing the grammar content a teacher can, in many cases, use the game frame offered at a higher or lower level. Generally, any frame can be filled with any structures you want to work on with your students. The students have to take individual responsibility for what they think the grammar is about. The teacher is free to find out what the students actually know, without being the focus of their attention. Serious work is taking place in the context of a game. The dice throwing and arguing lightens and enlivens the classroom atmosphere in a way that most people do not associate with the grammar part of a course. The ‘game’ locomotive pulls the grammar train along. Everybody is working at once- the 15-30 minutes the average game lasts is a period of intense involvement.
Other reasons for including games in a language class are:
1. They focus student attention on specific structures, grammatical patterns.
2. They can function as reinforcement, review and enrichment.
3. They involve equal participation from both slow and fast learners.
4. They can be adjusted to suit the individual ages and language levels of the students
5. They contribute to an atmosphere of healthy competition, providing an outlet for the creative use of natural language in a non-stressful situation.
6. They can be used in any language-teaching situation and with any skill area whether reading, writing, speaking or listening.
7. They provide the immediate feedback for the teacher.
8. They ensure maximum student participation for a minimum of teacher preparation.
A game should be planned into the day’s lesson right along with exercises, dialogues and reading practice. It should not be an afterthought.
Games are a lively way of maintaining students’ interest in the language, they are fun but also part of the learning process, and students should be encouraged to take them seriously. They should also know how much time they have to play a game. It’s not useful to start a game five minutes before the end of the lesson. Students are usually given a ‘five-minute warning’ before the time is over so they can work towards the end.
The older the students are, the more selective a teacher should be in choosing a game activity. Little kids love movements, while older ones get excited with puddles, crosswords, word wheels, and poster competitions whatever.
Modern language teaching requires a lot of work to make a lesson interesting for modern students who are on familiar terms with computers, Internet and electronic entertainment of any kind. Sympathetic relations must exist not only among students but between students and a teacher. It’s of special importance for junior students because very often they consider their teachers to be the subject itself, i.e. interesting and attractive or terrible and disgusting, necessary to know or useless and thus better to avoid.
A teacher should bear in mind that it is the content, not the form, which is of interest to the child. A toddler does not learn to say,”Cookie, please”, in her native language because she is practicing the request form. “Cookie, please” is learned because the child wants a cookie.
So children learn with their whole beings. Whole-child involvement means that one should arrange for the child’s participation in the lesson with as many senses as possible. Seeing pictures of children performing actions and repeating, “The boy is running”, “The girl is hopping” is not at all as effective as when students do the actions themselves in response to commands and demonstrations from the teacher.
All said above is fairly true to adult learners not only children, because of our common human nature to possess habits through experience. We all learned to understand and speak our first language by hearing and using it in natural situations, with people who cared for and about us. This is the most effective and interesting way to learn a second language as well. The experts now advise language teachers to spend most of the classroom time an activities that foster natural acquisition, rather than on formal vocabulary and structure explanations and drills. They insist that “once you have become accustomed to the rewards and pleasures gained from teaching through activities, you will wonder how second-language teaching ever got to be anything else. Your own ideas for activities and their management will flow, and your students’ learning rates will soar!” “Activities’ mean action games, finger and hand-clapping games, jump rope and ball-bouncing games, seat and card games, speaking and guessing games and even handicraft activities. Judging the results we have nothing but believe them.
Chapter 2. Practice part
2.2.1 Games with prepositions
PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE
1. MAGAZINE SEARCH
Materials: Magazines to share in groups
Dynamic: Small groups
Time: 15 minutes
Procedure: 1. On the board, write a list of prepositions of place that the students have studied. Divide the students into groups of three or four and give each group several magazines. You may want to ask students to bring in their own. If you are supplying them, be sure that they have full-page ads or other large pictures.
2. Give the groups a time limit and have them search through their magazines to find a picture that contains situations illustrating prepositions of place.
3. When the time is up, each group goes to the front of the class, holds up its picture, and explains (in sentences) the contents of the picture, using prepositions of place.
Example: The dog is under the table.
The table is next to the man.
The table is in front of the window.
4. The group that found a picture allowing them to correctly use the most prepositions of place from the list on the board wins.
NOTE: With an intermediate group, choose a wider range of prepositions that they have already reviewed.
2. SCAVENGER HUNT
Materials: Worksheet 1.1, objects filled in various objects provided by instructor
Time: 20 minutes
Procedure: 1. Before students come into the classroom, distribute various objects around the room, placing them in visible positions that students can describe using their prepositions of place. List the objects on the worksheet.
2. Divide the class into pairs and give each pair a copy of the worksheet.
3. The students look around the room for each object listed on the worksheet and write a complete sentence describing its location. The first group to finish brings their worksheet to you to be checked. If the answers are correct, that group wins.
3. PREPOSITIONAL CHAIN DRILL
Dynamic: Whole class
Time: 10 minutes
Procedure: 1. Review prepositions of place.
2. Take a small object, such as a pen, and do something with it, then describe your action. (Put the pen on the desk and say, "I put the pen on the desk.")
3. Give the pen to a student and ask him/her, "What did I do with the pen?"
4. The student answers and then does something different with the object that involves a different preposition of place.
5. The student then passes the object to the next student and asks, "What did we do with the pen?" That student repeats what the teacher did and what the first student did with the object. The second student then does something different with the object before passing it to the third student.
Teacher: I put the pen on the desk. What did I do with the pen?
Alfredo: You put the pen on the desk. (to the next student, Damian) I put the pen above my head. What did we do with the pen?
Damian: The teacher put the pen on the desk. Alfredo put the pen above his head. I put the pen under my book. (to the next student) What did we do with the pen? etc.
6. This activity continues until no one can do something different with the pen that can be described using a preposition of place.
NOTE: You may want to write the prepositions that have been used on the board to help the students remember.
Variation: Give each student a card to use with a preposition of place on it.
4. ERROR ANALYSIS
Materials: Worksheet 1.2 or other similar picture
Time: 1. Divide the class into pairs. Give each pair a copy of the worksheet or other similar picture.
NOTE: If you are using your own picture, also give the pairs several sentences you have written about the picture, as on the worksheet. Some sentences should be accurate, and others incorrect.
2. The pairs read the sentences about the picture and decide if they are correct or incorrect in their preposition usage. If they are incorrect, they must correct them.
3. When a pair is finished, check their work. If this is a competition, the first pair to finish the worksheet correctly wins. If using this activity as a review activity, go over the answers together when everyone has finished.
SUGGESTION: As a follow-up activity, have each pair write 10 True/False sentences with which to challenge another pair.
5. PREPOSITION BEE
Materials: Worksheet 1.3 A or 1.3 B for instructor's use
Time: 10 minutes
Procedure: 1. Divide the class into two teams. Have them line up along opposite walls, or arrange their desks in two lines.
2. The first student from Team A steps to the front of the class. Read a sentence, omitting the preposition. The student must fill in the blank. Several answers will probably be possible; give the team a point for any appropriate answer.
3. Alternate students from the two teams until everyone has had a turn or you are out of time. The team with the most points wins.
SUGGESTION: Instead of reading the sentences, use an overhead and reveal one sentence at a time. This avoids repetition and helps the students to focus on the sentence.
NOTE: You may want to make your own sentences based on the prepositions your class has covered. This activity could also be done at a higher level with sentences using phrasal verbs.
Materials: Board, instructor's grid
Time: 25 minutes
Procedure: 1. Draw a grid on the board with just the numbers. On a paper, your grid will have the answers written in.
NOTE: In the example below, the phrasal verbs have been taken from the list in Fundamentals of English Grammar. Several of the verbs in the chart below can take more than one particle, but the list is usually limited to one or two combinations. It is important to choose combinations you have studied and to limit entries so that three or even four matches are not possible. If you have studied more than one combination (such as ask out, ask over, and ask around,) and you want to review them using this activity, you will need to use some particles more than once. That way, the students will be able to make matches such as ask out, drop out, and so on. This chart is intended only as a model to help you explain the game; your own chart will be geared to the lessons in your class.
On the board:
|2 |||3 |||4 |||5 |
|6 |||7 |||8 |||9 |||10 |
|11 |||12 |||13 |||14 |||15 |
|16 |||17 |||18 |||19 |||20 |